Ak2093 kaedah penyelidikan komunikasi


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Ak2093 kaedah penyelidikan komunikasi

  1. 1. Panduan Kursus/Course Guide for AK2093 Kaedah Penyelidikan Komunikasi/ Communication Research Methodology Disusun oleh/Collated by Suhaimi Salleh Dengan sokongan oleh/In collaboration with Abdul Latif Lai Syahrudin Awang Ahmad • Muat Turun Panduan Kursus PDF) (Download Course Guide (PDF)) • Pautan-pautan Berguna (Useful Links) Pengenalan Kursus ini bertujuan untuk memberi pendedahan kepada para pelajar tentang proses-proses dalam penyediaan kertas cadangan penyelidikan, pengumpulan maklumat dan pendekatan- pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menjawab persoalan penyelidikan dalam bidang komunikasi. Pelajar juga akan melalui pengalaman dan masalah menyediakan dan menyempurnakan suatu laporan akhir penyelidikan. Melalui proses menjawab persoalan penyelidikan, para pelajar akan mengetahui konsep asas dan proses penyelidikan yang perlu dilalui dan seterusnya menjawab persoalan mengikut kaedah yang ditetapkan secara sistematik. Pengajaran kursus akan mengambil pendekatan amali dan bersifat 'hands-on'. Objektif Kursus Di akhir kuliah, pelajar diharapkan dapat: 1. Memahami kaedah yang sistematik bagi menjalankan penyelidikan komunikasi yang dirancang 2. Menghasilkan kertas cadangan yang dapat memandu dan menyempurnakan penyelidikan yang baik 3. Menganalisis dan mengenalpasti maklumat yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan penyelidikan yang berobjektif 4. Mengenalpasti punca masalah, faktor yang mempengaruhi penyelidikan dan kesannya ke atas perkembangan ilmu bidang komunikasi 5. Menghasilkan laporan akhir penyelidikan yang baik dan bermanfaat Kandungan Kursus
  2. 2. studies" is the academic discipline focused on communic ation forms, processes and meanings, including speech, interperso nal and organizatio nal communic ation. "Mass communic ation" is a more specialized academic discipline focused on the institutions , practice and effects of journalism , broadcasti ng, advertising , public relations and related mediated communic ation directed at a large, undifferent iated or segmented audience. [1.4] Communic ation studies is the academic discipline that studies communic ation; subdiscipli nes include animal communic ation, argumenta tion, speech communic ation,
  3. 3. Pautan-pautan Berguna (Useful Links) • THE RESEARCH PROBLEM - The problem is the problem ! • THE LITERATURE REVIEW • The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It • Apa itu "Gantt Chart" ? Suhaimi Salleh (c) Updated on: 30/12/2004, 20/12/2005 Definitions of literature review on the Web: A comprehensive survey of publications in a specific field of study or related to a particular line of research, usually in the form of a list of references or an in-depth review of key works. A specific type of serial known as an annual review is devoted solely to the publication of literature reviews. The first section of most research articles is usually devoted to a review of the previously published literature on the topic addressed in the article. www.msvu.ca/library/glossary.htm a systematic review of the published work about the topic of your study www.leeds.ac.uk/library/training/referencing/definitions.htm An extensive search of the information available on a topic which results in a list of references to books, periodicals, and other materials on the topic. www.usg.edu/galileo/skills/ollc_glossary.html Section of the written research report that provides the framework of the research investigation; summarizes the literature the researcher sought and
  4. 4. studied to design and develop the research study. highered. mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0767412176/student_view0/glossary.html This represents a demonstration and mastery of the concepts relevant to the research problem/question. It provides an exemplary description of background information that is focused on the problem/question and represents a search of the literature that has high diversity of sources (books, magazines, Internet, interviews), a large quantity of sources, and an exemplary reference format. kancrn.kckps.k12.ks.us/Harmon/dabritt/definitions.html Source: http://kerlins.net/bobbi/research/qualresearch/problem.html THE PROBLEM IS THE PROBLEM ! A good problem for an inquiry is the key to a good proposal. Any problem can be turned into a question but not every question is a problem, and not every problem is a good problem. The same for purpose, topic, subject, etc. So - what is a problem? And what is a good problem? To answer that question, we have to consider the purpose of inquiry and the nature of problems that an inquiry should address. The purpose of inquiry An inquiry, investigation, research project, etc., are names given to action designed to make a contribution to knowledge. The activity must add to what is already known, not just to reshuffle the same old cards. Contributing to knowledge then becomes a task of testing, extending, or challenging what is known or supposed to be known. A good theory is the most practical type of knowledge because, unlike a fact, it organizes and guides classes of activity. Therefore, testing, extending, or challenging a theory is the most useful contribution to knowledge. The next task is to turn a problem statement into a proposal for a project (term paper, thises, [sic] independent research, dissertation, etc.) A proposal is an action plan that persuades the reader that the problem is real, urgent, and deserves attention, time, money, etc. Action cannot be general but must be specific in time, place, and direction. You cannot do
  5. 5. much about generalities, though ultimately we can derive general principles and theories from specific actions. The nature of a problem We have noted that every problem can be formulated as a question (or purpose or topic, etc.), but not every question is a problem. "How many pebbles on the beaches of New Jersey?" is a question. But until somebody comes up with a good reason why we need to know, it is not a problem. The word problem comes from the Greek pro-, before or forth, and balein, to throw, and used to mean the difficulty that life throws on your path. So in order to have a problem, (1) you must have a desirable direction, (2) you must have a difficulty to overcome in order to make progress or to avoid sliding back; and (3) eventually you must figure out a practical and promising way to deal with the difficulty, i.e. to illuminate it, understand it better, and to decide what should be done about it. The theory, hypothesis, or your belief or hunch to be tested, extended, or challenged should bear directly on such a specific problem. What is a good problem ? A good problem is not just what can be usefully addressed but what should be addressed in order to achieve or make progress toward a desirable goal or to avoid an undesirable event. It is something in which you are interested rather than something that is "done" or serves only the purposes of an academic exercise or employer or institution) but is also of some general social and public or communication- theoretical interest. In other words, a good problem is an issue or difficulty of some significance, urgency and priority whose investigation will make a useful contribution to knowledge. (If you already know the answer, if the answer can be found by a simple search of existing studies, or if it is totally predictable, there is no need to do the study.) Now - write a one page draft proposal covering briefly the points noted below. No preliminaries, get right to the point: "I propose a study to address the problem of X. This is a problem because....etc." Be specific. Address each point of the 4W's&H guideline below: PROPOSAL: THE 4W'S & H
  6. 6. TITLE (Substantive) WHAT IS THE PROBLEM ? Not "question" or "topic." Problem addresses an issue, difficulty, or need that should be addressed. See previous notes on "The Problem." WHY IS IT A PROBLEM ? Reason for and significance of problem. Any theory being tested, extended, challenged ? Not why it can be done by why it should or must be done. Convince the reader that it is worth investing time, effort, etc. WHERE ? Location on some scheme, model, or framework of communications study. Type of study. (Policy, content, effects, interaction, etc.) WHO HAS DONE WHAT ABOUT RESEARCH ON THIS PROBLEM ? Reference to relevant studies and an explanation of their relevance. Note at least one and its relevance. HOW ? • What original observations, documents, interviews, etc. will be involved? (Sample, case study, etc.) • Units of analysis (person, story, word, institution, documents, etc.,if any). • Instrument, plan of procedure.