Panduan Kursus/Course Guide for
AK2093 Kaedah Penyelidikan Komunikasi/
Communication Research Methodology
Disusun oleh/Collated by
Dengan sokongan oleh/In collaboration with
Abdul Latif Lai
Syahrudin Awang Ahmad
• Muat Turun Panduan Kursus PDF) (Download Course Guide (PDF))
• Pautan-pautan Berguna (Useful Links)
Kursus ini bertujuan untuk memberi pendedahan kepada para pelajar tentang proses-proses
dalam penyediaan kertas cadangan penyelidikan, pengumpulan maklumat dan pendekatan-
pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menjawab persoalan penyelidikan dalam bidang komunikasi.
Pelajar juga akan melalui pengalaman dan masalah menyediakan dan menyempurnakan suatu
laporan akhir penyelidikan. Melalui proses menjawab persoalan penyelidikan, para pelajar akan
mengetahui konsep asas dan proses penyelidikan yang perlu dilalui dan seterusnya menjawab
persoalan mengikut kaedah yang ditetapkan secara sistematik. Pengajaran kursus akan
mengambil pendekatan amali dan bersifat 'hands-on'.
Di akhir kuliah, pelajar diharapkan dapat:
1. Memahami kaedah yang sistematik bagi menjalankan penyelidikan komunikasi yang
2. Menghasilkan kertas cadangan yang dapat memandu dan menyempurnakan penyelidikan
3. Menganalisis dan mengenalpasti maklumat yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan
penyelidikan yang berobjektif
4. Mengenalpasti punca masalah, faktor yang mempengaruhi penyelidikan dan kesannya ke
atas perkembangan ilmu bidang komunikasi
5. Menghasilkan laporan akhir penyelidikan yang baik dan bermanfaat
ation" is a
Pautan-pautan Berguna (Useful Links)
• THE RESEARCH PROBLEM - The problem is the problem !
• THE LITERATURE REVIEW
• The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It
• Apa itu "Gantt Chart" ?
Suhaimi Salleh (c)
Updated on: 30/12/2004, 20/12/2005
Definitions of literature review on the Web:
A comprehensive survey of publications in a specific
field of study or related to a particular line of
research, usually in the form of a list of references
or an in-depth review of key works. A specific type of
serial known as an annual review is devoted solely to
the publication of literature reviews. The first
section of most research articles is usually devoted
to a review of the previously published literature on
the topic addressed in the article.
a systematic review of the published work about the
topic of your study
An extensive search of the information available on a
topic which results in a list of references to books,
periodicals, and other materials on the topic.
Section of the written research report that provides
the framework of the research investigation;
summarizes the literature the researcher sought and
studied to design and develop the research study.
This represents a demonstration and mastery of the
concepts relevant to the research problem/question. It
provides an exemplary description of background
information that is focused on the problem/question
and represents a search of the literature that has
high diversity of sources (books, magazines, Internet,
interviews), a large quantity of sources, and an
exemplary reference format.
THE PROBLEM IS THE PROBLEM !
A good problem for an inquiry is the key to a good
proposal. Any problem can be turned into a question
but not every question is a problem, and not every
problem is a good problem. The same for purpose,
topic, subject, etc. So - what is a problem? And what
is a good problem? To answer that question, we have to
consider the purpose of inquiry and the nature of
problems that an inquiry should address.
The purpose of inquiry
An inquiry, investigation, research project, etc., are
names given to action designed to make a contribution
to knowledge. The activity must add to what is already
known, not just to reshuffle the same old cards.
Contributing to knowledge then becomes a task of
testing, extending, or challenging what is known or
supposed to be known.
A good theory is the most practical type of knowledge
because, unlike a fact, it organizes and guides
classes of activity. Therefore, testing, extending, or
challenging a theory is the most useful contribution
The next task is to turn a problem statement into a
proposal for a project (term paper, thises, [sic]
independent research, dissertation, etc.) A proposal
is an action plan that persuades the reader that the
problem is real, urgent, and deserves attention, time,
money, etc. Action cannot be general but must be
specific in time, place, and direction. You cannot do
much about generalities, though ultimately we can
derive general principles and theories from specific
The nature of a problem
We have noted that every problem can be formulated as
a question (or purpose or topic, etc.), but not every
question is a problem. "How many pebbles on the
beaches of New Jersey?" is a question. But until
somebody comes up with a good reason why we need to
know, it is not a problem. The word problem comes from
the Greek pro-, before or forth, and balein, to throw,
and used to mean the difficulty that life throws on
your path. So in order to have a problem, (1) you must
have a desirable direction, (2) you must have a
difficulty to overcome in order to make progress or to
avoid sliding back; and (3) eventually you must figure
out a practical and promising way to deal with the
difficulty, i.e. to illuminate it, understand it
better, and to decide what should be done about it.
The theory, hypothesis, or your belief or hunch to be
tested, extended, or challenged should bear directly
on such a specific problem.
What is a good problem ?
A good problem is not just what can be usefully
addressed but what should be addressed in order to
achieve or make progress toward a desirable goal or to
avoid an undesirable event. It is something in which
you are interested rather than something that is
"done" or serves only the purposes of an academic
exercise or employer or institution) but is also of
some general social and public or communication-
theoretical interest. In other words, a good problem
is an issue or difficulty of some significance,
urgency and priority whose investigation will make a
useful contribution to knowledge. (If you already know
the answer, if the answer can be found by a simple
search of existing studies, or if it is totally
predictable, there is no need to do the study.)
Now - write a one page draft proposal covering briefly
the points noted below. No preliminaries, get right to
the point: "I propose a study to address the problem
of X. This is a problem because....etc." Be specific.
Address each point of the 4W's&H guideline below:
PROPOSAL: THE 4W'S & H
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM ?
Not "question" or "topic." Problem addresses an issue,
difficulty, or need that should be addressed. See
previous notes on "The Problem."
WHY IS IT A PROBLEM ?
Reason for and significance of problem. Any theory
being tested, extended, challenged ? Not why it can be
done by why it should or must be done. Convince the
reader that it is worth investing time, effort, etc.
Location on some scheme, model, or framework of
communications study. Type of study. (Policy, content,
effects, interaction, etc.)
WHO HAS DONE WHAT ABOUT RESEARCH ON THIS
Reference to relevant studies and an explanation of
their relevance. Note at least one and its relevance.
• What original observations, documents, interviews, etc.
will be involved? (Sample, case study, etc.)
• Units of analysis (person, story, word, institution,
documents, etc.,if any).
• Instrument, plan of procedure.