Chapter 20 Vocab Terms


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Chapter 20 Vocab Terms

  1. 1. Chapter 20 Vocab Terms : National Security Policymaking
  2. 2. Foreign policy <ul><li>a policy that involves choice taking, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world. The president is the chief initiator of foreign policy in the US. </li></ul>
  3. 3. United Nations <ul><li>Created in 1945, an organization whose members agree to renounce war and respect certain human and economic freedoms. The seat of real power in the United Nations is the Security Council. </li></ul>
  4. 4. North Atlantic Treaty Organization <ul><li>Created in 1945, an organization whose members include the US, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all . </li></ul>
  5. 5. European Union <ul><li>A transnational government composed of most European nations that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. (ie. Regional organization) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secretary of State <ul><li>Head of the Department of State and traditionally a key adviser to the president on foreign policy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Secretary of Defense <ul><li>The head of Department of Defense and the president’s key adviser on military policy; a key foreign policy actor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Joint Chiefs of Staff <ul><li>The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Central Intelligence Agency <ul><li>An agency created after WWII, to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. It became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Isolationism <ul><li>A foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nation’s history whereby the US has tried to stay out of other nations’ conflicts, particularly European wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Was reaffirmed by the Monroe Doctrine </li></ul>
  11. 11. Containment Doctrine <ul><li>A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the US to isolate the Soviet Union, “contain” its advances, and resist its encroachments by peaceful means if possible but by force if necessary. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cold War <ul><li>War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict, such as that between the US and the Soviet Union from the end of WWII until the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  13. 13. McCarthyism <ul><li>The fear, prevalent in the 1950’s, that international communism was conspiratorial, insidious, and infiltrating American government & cultural institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy & flourished after the Korean War. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Arms Race <ul><li>a tense relationship beginning in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and the US whereby one side’s weaponry became the other side’s goad to procure more weaponry, & so on. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Détente <ul><li>A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought relaxation of tensions between the superpowers, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategic Defense Initiative <ul><li>Renamed after “Star Wars” by critics, a plan for defense against the soviet Union unveiled by President Reagan in 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates global umbrella in space, using computers to scan the skies and high-tech devices to destroy invading missiles. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interdependency <ul><li>Mutual dependency, in which the actions of nations reverberate & affect one another’s economic lifelines. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tariff <ul><li>A special tax added to imported goods to raise the price, thereby protecting American businesses and workers from foreign competition. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries <ul><li>An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations. </li></ul>