Zoonotic Diseases By Imran


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Disease caused by Animals

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Zoonotic Diseases By Imran

  1. 2. Zoonotic Diseases (Disease caused by Animals ) A zoonosis is any infectious disease that is transmitted by a vector from non-human animals , both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals (Reverse Zoonoses)
  2. 3. Types of Zoonoses <ul><ul><li>BACTERIAL DISEASES PARASITIC DISEASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis Balisascaris procyonis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubonic Plaque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leptospirosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psittacosis PROTOZOAN DISEASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonellosis Giardiasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetanus Toxoplasmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tularemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MYCOTIC DISEASES TICK BORNE DISEASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Aspergillosis Lyme Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histoplasmosis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VIRAL DISEASES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. TULAREMIA <ul><li>Pahvant Valley plague , rabbit fever , deer fly fever , Ohara's fever </li></ul><ul><li>Francisella tularensis ( g ram-negative , non-motile coccobacillus ) </li></ul><ul><li>primary vectors are ticks and deer flies </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents , rabbits, and hares - reservoir hosts </li></ul><ul><li>biting flies , direct contact with contaminated animals or material, </li></ul><ul><li>by ingestion of poorly cooked flesh of infected animals or contaminated water, </li></ul>
  4. 5. Clinical Manifestations <ul><li>Depending on the site of infection </li></ul><ul><li>Ulceroglandular - local ulceration at a site of infection </li></ul><ul><li>Oropharyngeal - Sores in the mouth and throat, as well as abdominal pain , nausea and vomiting, ulcers in the intestine, intestinal bleeding, and diarrhea may all occur. </li></ul><ul><li>pneumonic- </li></ul><ul><li>Oculoglandular - swollen eyelids, conjunctivitis, swollen lymph nodes, and ulcers on the conjunctivae. </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoidal - swelling of lymph glands with continuously high fever, terrible headache , and confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>The illness may result in a severely low blood pressure, with signs of poor blood flow to the major organs (shock). </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>IP 1 – 14 days </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible persons - clinical signs include fever, lethargy, anorexia, signs of septicemia, and possibly death </li></ul><ul><li>Subclinical infections are common and animals often develop specific antibodies to the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Fever is moderate or very high and tularemia bacillus can be isolated from blood cultures at this stage . </li></ul><ul><li>Face and eyes redden and become inflammed </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation spreads to the lymph nodes - enlarge and may suppurate (mimicking bubonic plague). </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph node involvement - accompanied by high fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Death occurs in less than 1% if therapy is initiated promptly </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin lesions samples – staining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffered Charcoal and Yeast Extract (BCYE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serological tests for detection of antibodies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streptomycin - muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gentamicin - Injected in muscle or through a needle in the vein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doxycycline for 2–3 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live vaccine is a available but restricted due to high risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avoiding areas known to harbor ticks and flies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters should wear gloves when skinning animals or preparing meat </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Yersinia pestis – Gr negative rod shape, anaerobe </li></ul><ul><li>Flea borne </li></ul><ul><li>enters through the skin and travels through the lymhatics </li></ul>PUBONIC PLAQUE
  9. 10. Pathology and transmission <ul><li>infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsyla cheopis (the rat flea ) </li></ul><ul><li>fleas often found on rodents (rats and mice ) </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas , results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood , which is infected into the bite site of a rodent or human host </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Y. pestis resist phagocytosis and multiply in phagocytes and kill them </li></ul><ul><li>the lymph nodes can hemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>Bubonic plaque changed into septicemic plaque </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonic plaque- spread to plaque </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms can spreads by droplets (sneezing / coughing) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Symptoms <ul><li>Bubonic plaque </li></ul><ul><ul><li>painful, swollen lymph glands (buboes ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly found in groin, armpits & neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First stage of series illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pneumonic and septicemic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patient with the bubonic plague developed pneumonia or blood poisoning . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonic plaque induces coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms like red spots which turn black later </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>heavy breathing, </li></ul><ul><li>continuous blood vomiting, </li></ul><ul><li>urination of blood, aching limbs, coughing, and terrible pain. </li></ul><ul><li>pain caused by the actual decaying, or decomposing, of the skin while the person is still alive </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Immunization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid contactwith infected persons/animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aminoglycosides streptomycin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doxycyline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentamycin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluroquinolone ciprofloxain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Psittacosis
  15. 16. <ul><li>parrot disease , parrot fever , and ornithosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydophila psittaci – gram negative </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads from parrots, pigeons, hens, ducks </li></ul>
  16. 17. Infection in birds <ul><li>Infection in birds - avian chlamydiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Shed bacteria in feces and secretion viable for months </li></ul><ul><li>Certain strains quiescent until any stress conditions arised </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection is systemic & apparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection is severe, acute or chronic with intermittent shedding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inflamed eyes, difficulty in breathing, watery droppings and green urates </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Infection spreads through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droppings, feathers, eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infect mucosal epithelial cells and macrophages of the respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Septecimia develops and localises in epithelial cells and M Ø’s of organs, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various serovars exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serovar A- humans, mammals, tortoises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serovar B- pigeons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serovar C & D- slaughter workers & close contact persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serovar E – not specific </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Disease can be diagnosed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed by antigen & antibody reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCR based tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>false negatives are possible , so combination of clinical and lab tests is recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection is fatal & kills the bird in 3 weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doxycyline and Tetracycline in water/ injections </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Infection in Humans <ul><li>IP 5 -14 days </li></ul><ul><li>In apparent to severe illness – pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid in Initial stages </li></ul><ul><li>prostrating high fever, arthralgias, diarrhoea, conjuctivitis, epistaxis and leukopenia </li></ul><ul><li>Rose spots occur – Horder’s spots </li></ul><ul><li>Spleenomegaly, </li></ul><ul><li>Severe head ache – indication of meningitis </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>During 2 week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia with continuous high fevers, cough and dyspnoea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patchy infiltrates or a diffuse whiteout of lung fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood show thrombocytopenia and liver enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myocarditis, arthritis, keratoconjuctivitis </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Infection spreads to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet holders, pet shop owners, veterinarians , zoo keepers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis made by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial cultures – resiratory secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four fold increase in Ab titres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetracycline & Chlorampenicol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral doxycyline, tetracycline hydrocholride, chlorampenicol palmitate </li></ul></ul>