Policies for sustainbale development in Europe: methods, tools and experiences
Policies for sustainbale development in Europe: methods, tools and experiences by Pierfrancesco Fighera Formez Centro di formazione studi email@example.com;
The commitment to sustainable development Sustainable development means that the needs of the present generation should be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Bruntland Report and UN Agenda 21). SD is an overarching objective of the European Union set out in the Treaty, governing all the Union’s policies and activities. It is about safeguarding the earth's capacity to support life in all its diversity and is based on the principles of democracy, gender equality, solidarity, the rule of law and respect for fundamental rights, including freedom and equal opportunities for all. It aims at the continuous improvement of the quality of life and well-being on Earth for present and future generations. To that end it promotes a dynamic economy with full employment and a high level of education, health protection, social and territorial cohesion and environmental protection in a peaceful and secure world, respecting cultural diversity.
Towards a more sustainable Europe 1995 Integration of environmental concerns into other policy fields 1997 Amsterdam Treaty (art.2 - art. 6) 1998 Cardiff Process 1999 European Council Helsinki European Commission is asked to develop a comprehensive and long term strategy for Sustainable Development 1996
2000 Lisbon Process 2002 2003 2004 2001 2005 European Council of G ö teb ö rg EU Sustainable Development Strategy (2001) Global dimension; targeting environmental priorities; climate change; sustainable transport; public health; natural resources; internalize environmental costs European Council of Barcelona (external dimension) Review process <ul><li>COM(2005) 37: initial stocktaking and future orientations </li></ul><ul><li>COM(2005) 218: guiding principles for Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>COM(2005) 658: a platform for action </li></ul>Towards a more sustainable Europe
<ul><li>Key challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change and clean energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable transports </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable consumption and production </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation and management of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Public health </li></ul><ul><li>Social inclusion, demography and migration </li></ul><ul><li>Global povery and sustainable development challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting issues </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Research and development </li></ul><ul><li>Financing and economic instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, mobilising actors </li></ul>New EU Strategy for Sustainable Development European Council 15-16 June 2006 Adoption of the Renewed Strategy for Sustainable Development
Key Objectives Environmental Protection Social equity and cohesion Economic Prosperity Meeting our international responsibilities <ul><li>Promotion and protection of fundamental rights </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity within and between generations </li></ul><ul><li>Open and democratic society </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of business and social partners </li></ul><ul><li>Policy coherence and governance </li></ul><ul><li>Policy integration </li></ul><ul><li>Use of best available technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Precautionary principle </li></ul><ul><li>Make polluters pay principle </li></ul>Policy guiding principles Towards a new EU SDS
2006 EU SDS 2008 2009 2010 2007 2011 Governance process of the EU SDS European Council (December) Progress Report on EU SDS implementation Member States Country Reports Measuring progress towards a more sustainable Europe (Eurostat) National Focal Points Country Reports EU SDS Progress Report Reviewing the EU SDS Governance of EU SDS
The integrate approach – horizontal integration
The integrate approach - vertical integration National level NSDSs Regional level RSDSs Global level Agenda 21 Sub-regional level Local Agenda 21 Bottom-up Top-down
“ MAKING USE OF SYNERGIES BETWEEN THE EU SDS AND THE LISBON STRATEGY FOR GROWTH AND JOBS (Lisbon Strategy) ” The EU SDS and the Lisbon Strategy for growth and jobs complement each other The EU SDS forms the overall framework within which the Lisbon Strategy provides the motor of a more dynamic economy Does competitiveness need more attention than SD issues? Competitiveness Council Sustainable Development Council? The approach of renewed Strategy
A first analysis of EU SDS 2006 - Strenghts… <ul><li>More comprehensive document compared to Gothenburg Strategy; </li></ul><ul><li>Clearer governance and implementation provisions; </li></ul><ul><li>Key challenges include operational objectives and targets; </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at balancing economic, social and environmental objectives (horizontal integration); </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses policy coherence on all political levels (vertical integration); </li></ul><ul><li>Improved system of progress reporting; </li></ul><ul><li>SDS coordinators appointed in each Member State </li></ul><ul><li>EU SDS is important paradigm for civil society and a policy driver at national and sub-national level </li></ul>
Operational objectives and targets Kyoto Protocol commitments of the EU-15 and most EU-25 to targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2008 – 2012, whereby the EU-15 target is for an 8% reduction in emissions compared to 1990 levels. Aiming for a global surface average temperature not to rise by more than 2ºC compared to the pre-industrial level Energy policy should be consistent with the objectives of security of supply, competitiveness and environmental sustainability, in the spirit of the Energy Policy for Europe launched in March 2006 by the European Council. Energy policy is crucial when tackling the challenge of climate change. Adaptation to, and mitigation of, climate change should be integrated in all relevant European policies By 2010 12% of energy consumption, on average, and 21% of electricity consumption, as a common but differentiated target, should be met by renewable sources, considering raising their share to 15% by 2015 By 2010 5,75% of transport fuel should consist of biofuels, as an indicative target, (Directive 2003/30/EC), considering raising their proportion to 8% by 2015 Reaching an overall saving of 9% of final energy consumption over 9 years until 2017 as indicated by the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive Climate Change and clean energy
Operational objectives and targets Decoupling economic growth and the demand for transport with the aim of reducing environmental impacts. Achieving sustainable levels of transport energy use and reducing transport greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing pollutant emissions from transport to levels that minimise effects on human health and/or the environment. Achieving a balanced shift towards environment friendly transport modes to bring about a sustainable transport and mobility system. Reducing transport noise both at source and through mitigation measures to ensure overall exposure levels minimise impacts on health. Modernising the EU framework for public passenger transport services to encourage better efficiency and performance by 2010. In line with the EU strategy on CO2 emissions from light duty vehicles, the average new car fleet should achieve CO2 emissions of 140g/km (2008/09) and 120g/km (2012). Halving road transport deaths by 2010 compared to 2000 Sustainable transport
Operational objectives and targets Promoting sustainable consumption and production by addressing social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems and decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation. Improving the environmental and social performance for products and processes and encouraging their uptake by business and consumers. Aiming to achieve by 2010 an EU average level of Green Public Procurement (GPP) equal to that currently achieved by the best performing Member States. The EU should seek to increase its global market share in the field of environmental technologies and eco-innovations. Sustainable consumption and production
Operational objectives and targets Improving resource efficiency to reduce the overall use of non renewable natural resources and the related environmental impacts of raw materials use, thereby using renewable natural resources at a rate that does not exceed their regeneration capacity. Gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage by improving resource efficiency, inter alia through the promotion of eco-efficient innovations. Improving management and avoiding overexploitation of renewable natural resources such as fisheries, biodiversity, water, air, soil and atmosphere, restoring degraded marine ecosystems by 2015 in line with the Johannesburg Plan (2002) including achievement of the Maximum Yield in Fisheries by 2015. Halting the loss of biodiversity and contributing to a significant reduction in the worldwide rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. Contributing effectively to achieving the four United Nations global objectives on forests by 2015. Avoiding the generation of waste and enhancing efficient use of natural resources by applying the concept of life-cycle thinking and promoting reuse and recycling. Conservation and management of natural resources
Operational objectives and targets Improving protection against health threats by developing capacity to respond to them in a co-ordinated manner. Further improving food and feed legislation, including review of food labelling. Continuing to promote high animal health and welfare standards in the EU and internationally. Curbing the increase in lifestyle-related and chronic diseases, particularly among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and areas. Reducing health inequalities within and between Member States by addressing the wider determinants of health and appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies. Actions should take into account international cooperation in fora like WHO, the Council of Europe, OECD and UNESCO. Ensuring that by 2020 chemicals, including pesticides, are produced, handled and used in ways that do not pose significant threats to human health and the environment… Improving information on environmental pollution and adverse health impacts. Improving mental health and tackling suicide risks. Public Health
Operational objectives and targets Pursuing the EU objective that steps have to be taken to make a decisive impact on the reduction of the number of people at risk of poverty and social exclusion... Ensuring a high level of social and territorial cohesion at EU level and in the Members States as well as respect for cultural diversity. Supporting the Member States in their efforts to modernise social protection in view of demographic changes. Significantly increasing the labour market participation of women and older workers according to set targets, as well as increasing employment of migrants by 2010. Continuing developing an EU migration policy, accompanied by policies to strengthen the integration of migrants and their families... Reducing the negative effects of globalisation on workers and their families. Promoting increased employment of young people. Intensifying efforts to reduce early school leaving to 10% and to ensure that at least 85% of 22 year olds should have completed upper secondary education… Increasing the labour market participation of disabled persons. Social inclusion, demography and migration
Operational objectives and targets Make significant progress towards meeting the commitments of the EU with regard to internationally agreed goals and targets…Millennium Declaration, The World Summit on Sustainable Development and related processes... Contribute to improving international environmental governance (IEG), in particular in the context of the follow-up to the 2005 World Summit outcome, and to strengthening multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Raise the volume of aid to 0,7% of Gross National Income (GNI) by 2015 with an intermediate target of 0,56% in 2010… Promote sustainable development in the context of the WTO negotiations, in accordance with the preamble to the Marrakech Agreement... Increase the effectiveness, coherence and quality of EU and Member States aid policies in the period 2005–2010. Include sustainable development concerns in all EU external policies, including the Common Foreign and Security Policy, inter alia by making it an objective of multilateral and bilateral development cooperation. Global poverty and sustainable development challenges
… . and weaknesses <ul><li>Only genenral description of link between Lisbon Strategy; </li></ul><ul><li>Quantified targets only in some of the key challenges; no targets in the cross-cutting policies; </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration major challenge however no clear strategic framework is provided of how to adress this challenge (still major emphasis on env. Issue); </li></ul><ul><li>Links between objectives of the EU SDS and the national Strategies rather weak; no clear indication of the role of sub-national level; </li></ul><ul><li>Only very few volutary peer reviews and external evaluations of NSDSs; </li></ul><ul><li>Improved system of progress reporting; </li></ul><ul><li>Political profile weaker compared to the Lisbon Process </li></ul>
The idea of SD in Europe The idea which by now seems to be consolidated at European level, firstly in the scientific field, secondly in the political one, is that environmental sustainability could represent, besides a constitutive element of the European model of society , the main driver of innovation of a new development model which could allow the territory of the Union to compete at global level, a driver to focus and invest on, in order to respond to the on-going challenges in the economic field of competitiveness and development, besides to the environmental and social questions.
The evaluation of policy for SD Nevertheless the strategies evaluation has stressed a deficit of implementation, individuating the improving of governance , of decision-making processes and implementation as one of the main aspects on which to intervene, through the involving of every actor at stake, public and private  . Knowledge, information and education become a determining element so that the involved actors can take possession of the strategy and participate in aware way to the implementation of its objectives without renounce to maximize their own benefits. The quality of decision-making processes seems to play a relevant role , the capacity of attraction, involvement and regulation, of public and private subjects (from the analysis phase of needs and of private market demand, to the individuation of answers up to the intervention implementation), becomes one of the main instruments by which to implement the EU strategic objectives . Knowledge becomes the engine of a new model of development, a development that involve institutions, enterprises, consumers, workers and citizens in equal but differentiated way.  See the Communication to the Council and the European Parliament - Report on the 2007 strategy for sustainable development SEC(2007)1416 - COM(2007) 642 final.
Better policy-making The EU SDS sets out an approach to better policy-making based on better regulation and on the principle that sustainable development is to be integrated into policy-making at all levels . This requires all levels of government to support, and to cooperate with, each other, taking into account the different institutional settings, cultures and specific circumstances in Member States.
Sustainable Development in Italy 1995 1997 1998 1999 1996 National Plan for implementation of Agenda 21 (1993) Reviewing of the environmental legislation (water, waste, soil protection) First experiences of environmental accounts Measures to reform public system and governance (bottom – up approach) National Award for Sustainable cities of children Framework Agreement with ENEA Law 426/1998 “New interventions for environmental protection"
2000 2002 2003 2004 2001 Italian NSDS (CIPE Deliberation 2002) Sustainable development Fund (Finance Act 2001) Technical Board for Sustainable Development Spreading of sustainability tools at local level (LA21, GPP, EMS, voluntary agreements) National Program INFEA Integration of sustainability requirements into regional policy plans 2000-2006 National plan for the reduction of GHG emissions Sustainable Development in Italy
2005 2007 2008 2009 2006 Sustainable Development Fund (Finance Act 2007) National Program INFEA Country Report EU SDS National Action Plan for the implementation of GPP D.Lgs. 152/2006 Art. 3-quater (guiding principle of sustainable development) Country Report National Action Plan ETAP Programme Industry 2015 Sustainable Development in Italy Deputy Chamber Deliberation for sustainable development
<ul><li>New impetus in reviewing process of the National Strategy, with the involvement of institutional actors for compliance to the EU SDS key priorities; </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing of CIPE Deliberation n. 57/2002 and system of governance for SD (i.e. role of CNEL); </li></ul><ul><li>Strenghtening of synergies with Lisbon agenda; </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with climate change policy; </li></ul><ul><li>Development of structural indicators for Sust. Dev. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of role of Local Authorities and at sub-national level (State - Region Conference...) </li></ul>Possible scenarios and future steps??
The institutional and organizational dimension of sustainability Achieving sustainability objectives seems to be depending mainly on the governance practices finalized to integrate decision in the economic, social and environmental field in a long term perspective. The observation of the diffusion and the inclination of innovations outlines deep differences in the modalities of implementation of policies and application of tools. The fourth dimension of sustainable development, the institutional and organizational one , undertakes an increasing relevance (efficacy and coherence).
The prisme of sustainability Among these conditions an important role is played by explicit quantity and quality objectives of environmental, social and economic assets . Those objectives must be regulated taking into consideration a long-term vision and the modalities to achieve them through an integrate approach. Sustainable development is not a goal to achieve but it’s a whole of conditions that must be respected in the governance of the planet’s transformations.
Institutional arrangements and organizational innovations? The paradigm of sustainable development leads to a profound revision of the formulation and implementation processes of public policies , both at national and at local level since it crosses the Europeanization and the revision of European governance. THE SURVEY: The observation of such innovations in Italy outlines some peculiarities of the political and administrative system and profound differences in the modalities of implementation of policies and tools, especially those dedicated to development and to assessment and evaluation.
The sustainability of development in Europe The commitment towards sustainability in Europe is going through a re-definition phase which seems to be entitling the local (regional, sub-regional and inter-regional) government systems , a decisive role during the all cycle of life of policies. The high complexity of these issues, the evolution of scenarios and of the policy approaches, the increasing of uncertainty, foster an increasing interest for the cognitive dimension of the policy processes. New instruments and methodologies to sustain decision making are being experimenting and are diffusing into administrative practice.
Istitutional and organizational paradigms Lifelong learning, organizational development, communities of practice Skills development Training Training approaches Regulation, participation and accountability Planning and management Command and control Governance tools Third scenario or ecological approach: the environment is the set of all available resources Second scenario: the environment as the interaction between all the natural resources and human activity First scenario: the environment is what is around or set of natural resources Meaning Environment Interdisciplinary approaches Economic scineces and management Law sciences Topic areas Integration of different istitutional players Agency and independent authority Ministries Istitutional model Medio e lungo periodo Short period Medium term Temporal perspective Participation: negotiation and consultation Competition: supply and demand Authority through the rules Logical action Effectiveness and relevance Efficiency and effectiveness Legalità Principles of reference Network Pyramidal (Private market) Hierarchic Regulation model New Public governance New Public Management Burocratic Paradigm Specifications
Diffusion of innovations and ways of implementation in Italy Institutional progress does not seem to have produced a sufficient change in order to equally conjugate economy, society, ecology In some areas of Mezzogiorno in particular, policy approaches of the past still have too much influence on the current ones, and it looks like the consolidate approaches just don’t want to give way to the new ones , to the new methodologies and the new tools (often introduced on European initiative). Some contexts seem to be opposing a strong resistance to change . Others seem to be more able (or willing) to govern the on-going processes, to participate in a more active and aware way to the affirmation of a new development model
Participation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment process for 2007-2013 SF (Dir. 42/2001) 7 11 Sardegna 30 37 Campania 15 5 Calabria 30 8 Basilicata 13 4 Molise 10+20 6 Puglia 8 0 Sicilia 30 15 Lombardia Days for consultations Number of observations
Tools regional diffusion Fighera P. (2008) South North Center
Tools geographic distribution Fighera P. (2008) (147) (221) ( Total number) 100,0 100,0 Italy 5,4 9,0 South + islands (%) 33,3 36,2 North (%) 61,2 54,8 Center (%) % on Total (2007) % on Total (2004) Geographic area
Geographic distribution (Number of tools /1.000.000 residents) Fighera P. (2008)
Tools “surviving ability” Fighera P. (2008) 66,5 % (147) (221) ( Number ) 100 100 Total 80,0 % 2,7 2,3 Sustainability budget 50,0 % 4,1 5,4 Mandate budget 77,8 % 4,8 4,1 Green Public Procurement 77,3 % 11,6 10,0 Environmental budget 100,0 % 14,3 9,5 EMAS 59,0 % 15,6 17,6 Social budget 61,1 % 46,9 51,1 Local 21 Agenda % Surviving experiences % on Total (2007) % on Total (2004) Tool
Comments on distribution pattern An overview on the diffusion of innovative instruments outlines a regional distribution which might resemble to some meaningful differences at national level. Even more interesting are the results on the overview on the surviving experiences. The majority of the surveyed experiences occur in the Center of Italy: distribution is someway out of the path of wealth distribution. On the contrary, it seems to be follow other distribution patterns (eg. HDI or other indicators, quality of life, instruction level...) This might suggest that, besides regional wealth, there can be other causes for such a distribution, which can be found in the cultural dimension (the administrative and political culture) and in the existing social capital .