Global Worming


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Global Worming

  1. 1. Global worming,Climate Change, Causes and Its Impacts Welcome Abu Shadat Muhammad Sayem Graduate Student (Masters-1) Hokkaido University January 27, 2009
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of CC </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of CC on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought/ dry lands /desertification/ deserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural disaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Himalaya, Glaciers/ Polar/Arctic region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forest Ecosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>National Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>What we have to do </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Himalaya The global climate is changing and it is likely to change further over coming decades due to increasing concentrations of ‘ greenhouse gases’ in the earth’s atmosphere caused largely by human activities. This will result in greater variations in weather patterns, a greater frequency of extreme weather events such as floods , droughts and tropical storms , and gradual rises in average temperatures and sea-levels . Bangladesh is extremely vulnerable to climate change impacts because of its geographical location , high population density , high levels of poverty , and the reliance of many livelihoods on climate-sensitive sectors, particularly rural agriculture and fisheries. CC will reduce the 30% of crop production since 1950 If MSL increases 1 m, 2500 sq km of Goran forest will destroy 20% of land of Bangladesh will go under water
  5. 5. What is the Greenhouse Effect?
  6. 6. Global Warming
  7. 7. Greenhouse Gases <ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul>
  8. 9. Causes Of CC Major Greenhouse Gas and their Global Warming Potential <ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO2) GWP 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Methane (CH4) GWP 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxide (N2O) GWP 310 </li></ul><ul><li>CFC12 (CCI2F2) GWP 6200-7200 </li></ul><ul><li>HCFC22(CHCIF2) GWP 1300-1400 </li></ul>
  9. 10. Causes of CC Responsible countries for large emissions of CO2 <ul><li>USA : 5,800 MT Per Year </li></ul><ul><li>China : 3,000 MT Per Year </li></ul><ul><li>Russia : 2,000 MT Per Year </li></ul><ul><li>U.K. : 500 MT Per Year </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>(The Daily Star, Date: 24.12.2005) </li></ul>
  10. 11. THE TOP 20 CARBON DIOXIDE EMITTERS Country Total emissions (1000 tons of C) Per capita emissions (tons/capita) Per capita emissions (rank) 1. United States 1,650,020 5.61 (9) 2. China (mainland) 1,366,554 1.05 (92) 3. Russian Federation 415,951 2.89 (28) 4. India 366,301 0.34 (129) 5. Japan 343,117 2.69 (33) 6. Germany 220596 2.67 (36) 7. Canada 174,401 5.46 (10) 8. United Kingdom 160,179 2.67 (37) 9. Republic of Korea 127,007 2.64 (39) 10. Italy (including San Marino) 122,726 2.12 (50)
  11. 12. THE TOP 20 CARBON DIOXIDE EMITTERS Country Total emissions (1000 tons of C) Per capita emissions (tons/capita) Per capita emissions (rank) 11. Mexico 119,473 1.14 (84) 12. South Africa 119,203 2.68 (34) 13. Iran 118,259 1.76 (63) 14. Indonesia 103,170 0.47 (121) 15. France (including Monaco) 101,927 1.64 (66) 16. Brazil 90,499 0.50 (118) 17. Spain 90,145 2.08 (52) 18. Ukraine 90,020 1.90 (56) 19. Australia 89,125 4.41 (13) 20. Saudi Arabia 84,116 3.71 (18)
  12. 13. Source: Marland, G., T.A. Boden, R. J. Andres. 2004. Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change . Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. (available online at http:// cdiac . esd . ornl . gov /trends/ emis / tre _ coun . htm )
  13. 14. Causes of CC Deforestation Fig:Drastically deforestation for timber and shifting Cultivation
  14. 19. Fig.1 The Result of World System Model by MIT Group 2100 1900 2000 population pollution food per capita resources Industrial output per capita
  15. 20. The Present Level of CO2 Emission in Electricity Generation in EU-15 Finland is constructing 5 th nuclear power plant to achieve country’s goal for CO 2 emission.
  16. 22. How Does it Work??
  17. 23. <ul><li>Greenhouse gases act as insulators of heat, some heat is absorbed, while some is reflected back to space </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years there has been an increase in Greenhouse gases especially carbon </li></ul><ul><li>The blanket of insulating gases thickens, and more and more heat in trapped within the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  18. 24. Its here…
  19. 25. Correleation
  20. 26. Other Correlations
  21. 27. What Now? <ul><li>The Greenhouse effect has happened for along time, naturally. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only until the immense increase in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions that made it an excessive process. </li></ul>
  22. 28. Effects <ul><li>Increased Sea Level </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Cities Effected </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>
  24. 41. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources <ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase annual precipitation by 10-15% (estimated for 2030) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased precipitation and evaporation will affect mean run-off, frequency, and intensity of floods and drought, soil moisture, and surface and ground water availability in GBM region </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, these changes has a substantial effect on – </li></ul><ul><li>- agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>- fishery </li></ul><ul><li>- navigation </li></ul><ul><li>- industrial and domestic water supply </li></ul><ul><li>- salinity control and </li></ul><ul><li>- reservoir storage and operation </li></ul>
  25. 42. Asia now has less water per capita than any other continent Annual Renewable Water Resources per Person Fresh Water (Diminishing Supplies) South & Central America North America Africa Asia Europe
  26. 43. Impacts on Drought/ dry lands /desertification/ deserts <ul><li>Deserts are very dry places. Some of them get less than 10 inches of rain in a whole year. </li></ul><ul><li>Because there is little water, very few plants grow, so there is no shade. </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts get cold at night because there are no plants to hold the heat on the ground and because dry air cools quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry lands becomes more hotter and drier </li></ul><ul><li>Severe hot and cold may extinct desert biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Succulent Carrow well known Desert ecosystem is under threat </li></ul>
  27. 44. CC Impacts on Health <ul><li>Global warming will possibly: </li></ul><ul><li>enhance the vector- borne and water-borne diseases in the tropics (IPCC 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Increase incidences of diseases such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diarrhea, skin diseases, asthma, hypertension and malaria and dengue, loss of human lives, Impact on mental health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sanitation facilities will be acuter (WRI, 1998). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of water borne diseases as a result of disruption of water supply and sewage system </li></ul></ul>
  28. 45. Supply and Demand <ul><li>One important resource for the future is water </li></ul><ul><li>As global temperatures increase, certain areas will experience drought while others will experience flooding, thus contaminating fresh water. </li></ul>
  29. 46. CC impacts on Natural Disaster
  30. 47. CC impacts on Natural Disaster
  31. 48. CC impacts on Natural Disaster
  32. 49. CC impacts on Natural Disaster
  33. 50. Salinity Intrusion Crop damage and yield reduction River water turned impotable Increased water borne diseases Degradation of public health Industrial units suffered a progressive damage due to increased corrosion Industrial operation needed to carry fresh water from a long distance Top-dying of Sundari trees
  34. 51. Climate Change impact in the Himalaya and Glaciers <ul><li>The most visible impacts in the Glacia Environment is Retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning of Glaciers (10-60 m/yr) in the high mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Many small glaciers (<0.2 sq. km) already disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a considerable evidence of widespread loss of ice-mass in the Himalayan Glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible consequences are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in hydrological regime, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in water availability, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in sediment delivery, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in flash floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in Glacial Outburst Floods (GLOF) </li></ul></ul>Himalayan peaks reflecting in a glacial lake in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir
  35. 52. CC impacts on Glaciers &quot;Glaciers in the Himalayas are receding faster than in any other part of the world,&quot; according to Syed Iqbal Hasnain from the International Commission for Snow and Ice (ICSI) and the School of Environmental Studies of India's Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi . &quot;If the present rate continues, the likelihood of them disappearing by the year 2035 is very high.&quot;
  36. 53. CC impacts on Glacier The Gangotri glacier, source of the river Ganges, has been receding (10-30m/yr) at alarming rate. Environmentalists fear that if urgent measures are not undertaken, a time may come when Ganges may just disappear. Gangotri glacier… Drying up due to deforestation. Picture Source NASA 
  37. 54. CC impacts on Glaciers Fig :Imja glaciers at Dudh Koshi sub- basin which retreating at an unprecedented 74m/yr(Between 2001-2006) (Erwin Schneider,1961, and Alton Byers,1995 ;Courtesy of the Mountain Institute) Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people, the conservation group WWF has claimed. Fig: Scenarios of Arctic Glaciers
  38. 55. GLOF and its Impacts <ul><li>IMPACT/DAMAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding in the lower basin </li></ul><ul><li>Widening of river banks through </li></ul><ul><li>side cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Damage of Human life, Settlements, </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock Population </li></ul><ul><li>Damage of Reservoirs, Bridges, </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, Transmission lines </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of vast amount of </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Land, Forest land </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Tourism </li></ul>Environment Assessmerogramme for Asia and the Pacific Flooding in the lower basin
  39. 56. Impacts on Biodiversity Bufo periglenes - the golden toad. This species' extinction has been attributed to climate change. © Charles Smith, US Fish and Wildlife Service Coral in the great barrier island The great Barrier Reef of the east coast of Australia,the largest world coral reef ecosystem is under threaten due to CC
  40. 57. Impact on Polar Bears;.. Now in Threads <ul><li>Global warming affect the polar region </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity and quality of ice deteriorating </li></ul><ul><li>20-30% ice melted since 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Weights of Polar Bears reduced to 15-25% during 1981-1998 </li></ul><ul><li>At 2100 this species may be extinct </li></ul>
  41. 58. Impacts on Marine Biodiversity
  42. 59. CC Impacts on Islands SEA LEVEL RISE, FRENCH POLYNESIA. Bora Bora Island. <ul><li>Islands rich with Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>At present 11% of biodiversity under threat among which 23% lies in the island </li></ul><ul><li>50-80% land of Maldives lies just above of 1m of MSL </li></ul><ul><li>Due to SLR low Islands will go under water </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of people will be CC refugee </li></ul><ul><li>At 2005 the inhabitants of Vanuatu Islands of Pacific Ocean replaced </li></ul>
  43. 60. Impact on Bangladesh..
  44. 62. Too much water during monsoon
  45. 63. Impacts on Salinity
  46. 64. Impact on Terrestrial Biodiversity
  47. 65. Impacts on Forest ecosystem <ul><li>In past decades 130 millions hectares of forest, which is 9 times equal to Bangladesh deteriorated. </li></ul><ul><li>Now it requires 14 billions of trees per year for consecutive 10 years to recover the loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Small Changes in temp. and rainfall occurs significant effects on growth and distribution of trees </li></ul><ul><li>About 9% of flora and fauna under danger due to CC </li></ul><ul><li>Due to deforestation 1.7 billion ton of Co2 added in atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Due to 32cm SLR 84% of Sundarban deeply inundated and for 88 cm SLR Sundarban will be lost </li></ul>
  48. 66. Impacts on Forest Ecosystem ..cont
  49. 67. What's Intelligent people Says…. Last week our honorable Sensei arrange a open table discussion on Global worming This discussion give me new dimension on way of enhance my knowledge . So I especially Thanks to our sensei. In discussion our following Sensei participate with us. Professor Dr. Takemi Chikahisa Professor Dr. Yutaka TABE Professor Dr. Toshio Shudo From Discussion. From Internet.
  50. 68. Global Warming Media vs. Scientific fact and the economics behind it
  51. 69. <ul><li>Our Problem: Why do media and Scientific fact contradict each other </li></ul><ul><li>More Than 650 International Scientists Dissent Over Man-Made Global Warming Claims </li></ul><ul><li>Study: Half of warming due to Sun! –Sea Levels Fail to Rise? - Warming Fears in 'Dustbin of History' </li></ul><ul><li>'No evidence for accelerated sea-level rise'      </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  52. 70. <ul><li>Did you know…. </li></ul><ul><li>As The rest of the globe is warming, some major parts of Antarctica is actually cooling? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  53. 71. So….What should we ask? <ul><li>Why is the media so worried? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they telling the truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do the big celebrities get their knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people listen to the media more than scientists? </li></ul><ul><li>How does all of this tie into economics? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  54. 72. The Day After Tomorrow <ul><li>Oil pricing high ?? Who get benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Kyoto Protocol strictly ? ? Employment reduce </li></ul>
  55. 73. Opportunity Cost or
  56. 74. National Efforts <ul><li>Preparation of Portfolio of GHG abetment projects </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Initial National Communication </li></ul><ul><li>CC Enabling activity for 2 nd National Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of CC Cell at DoE </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of NAPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six sectoral report developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifteen Priority projects identified with a cost of 87 m $ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Projects proposal submitted for LDCF and SCCF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NCSA is being implemented </li></ul>
  57. 75. What We Have to Do … <ul><li>Capacity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Micro and Macro-level Risk Reduction plan </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of CC issues in Sectoral Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness Raising/Social Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation and Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change Adaptation Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>NAPA Implementation </li></ul>
  58. 76. Continue…
  59. 77. Our Solution <ul><li>People must listen to experts </li></ul><ul><li>Help out in Environment </li></ul><ul><li>People must decide whether to believe the media or actually listen to the people who know what they are doing . </li></ul>
  60. 78. Finally <ul><li>Plantation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection and Conservation of Existing Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul>
  61. 79. Thanks to give me time for talk about Global worming “ When we plant trees, we plant the seeds of Hope and Peace” Wangari Maathai