Chapter06

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Chapter06

  1. 1. CMBUkTI 6 bMENgEckRbU)ab sßitiBaNiC¢kmµ eroberog nigbeRgonedaysa®sþacarü Tug Eg:t Tel: 017 865 064 E-mail: [email_address] Website: www.nget99.blogspot.com
  2. 2. bMENgEckénKMrUtagkmµécdnü <ul><li>vtßúbMNg³ enAeBlEdlGñkbBa©b;enAkñúgCMBUkenH GñknwgGac³ </li></ul>
  3. 3. bMENgEckénKMrUtagkmµécdnü <ul><li>vtßúbMNg³ enAeBlEdlGñkbBa©b;enAkñúgCMBUkenH GñknwgGac³ </li></ul>
  4. 4. bMENgEckénKMrUtagkmµécdnü
  5. 5. <ul><li>- dMeNIrkareRCIserIsKMrUtagKWepþateTAelI karRbmUlRkumtMNagtUcénsaklsßiti. </li></ul><ul><li>- KMrUtagEdl)annwgpþl;nUvB½t’manEdlGac [eKeRbIedIm,IeFVIkar):an;sµanlkçN³énsaklsßitiTaMgmUl . </li></ul>1-kareRCIserIsKMrUtagRbU)ab (Selecting the Probability Sample) <ul><li>ehtuGVIRtUveFVIKMrUtagkmµécdnü? </li></ul><ul><li>1> karsikSaelIsaklsßitiTaMgmUyKW RtUveRbIeBlyU </li></ul><ul><li>2> éfø énkarsikSaelIRKb;FatuTaMgGs;rbs;saklsßitiGac eRcInhYsehtueBk </li></ul><ul><li>3> karminGacRtUtBinitüCak;Esþg elIRKb;FatuTaMgGs;kñúgsaklsßiti </li></ul><ul><li>4> kareFVIetsþxøHGaceFVI[vinasdl;lkçN³FmµCatirbs;saklsßiti </li></ul><ul><li>5> lTplKMrUtagKWRKb;RKan;¬GacykCakar)an¦ </li></ul><ul><li>viFIsa®sþKMrUtagmanlkçN³RbU)abEdleKeRbICaerOy²man4KW³ </li></ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ (Simple Random Sample) </li></ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüCaRbBn½ (Systematic Random Sample) </li></ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüBIRKb;Rkum (Stratified Random Sample) </li></ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüBIRkumécdnümYycMnYn (Cluster Random Sample) </li></ul>
  6. 6. KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ nig KMrUtagécdnüCaRbBn½ <ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ CaKMrUtagécdnüEdlKMrUtag nImYy²man»kasesµIKña[eKeRCIserIs ecjBIsaklsßiti. </li></ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØEckecjCaBIrKW³ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¬1¦ KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ minGaRs½y nig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¬2¦ KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ GaRs½y . </li></ul></ul>dMeNIrkar³ dMbUgKNna k = EpñkKt;én N / n . cMeBaH ]sSah_kmµ Nitra eyIgKYeRCIserIsbBa¢Ikmµkr ral;TI 16 (845/52) . KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ RtUveRbIkñúgkareRCIserIs ykeQµaHdMbUg ¬BIkñúgcMenamelxerogTI1eTATI16¦ bnÞab;mk cUreRCIsykeQµaHrral;TI16 BIbBa¢IbnþbnÞab; rhUt KMrUtagén kmµkrcMnYn 52 nak; RtUv)aneRCIserIs. <ul><ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüCaRbBn CaKMrUtagécdnüEdlmanTMhM n edaydMbUgerobFatuénsaklsßitiEdlman N Fatu tamlMdab;NamYy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- bnÞab;mkeKEcksaklsßitiCa n RkumEdlRkumnImYy² man k Fatu (k = EpñkKt;én N/n ) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- cMnuccab;epþImedayécdnüRtUv)aneRCIserIs bnÞab;mk Fatural;TI k RtUv)aneRCIserIsBIsaklsßiti. </li></ul></ul>]TahrN_³ ]sSah_kmµ Nitra mankmµkrsrub cMnYn 845 nak;. KMrUtagénkmµkrcMnYn 52nak; RtUveKeRCIserIsecjBIsakl sßitienaH. cUrGñkGFib,ayBITegVIenHedIm,I)anKMrUtagmYy edayeRbI viFIsa®sþ KMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ . dMeNIrkar³ eKsresreQµaHrbs;kmµkrnImYy² dak;elIRkdas ehIydak;kñúgRbGb;mYy. bnÞab;mkRkLúk[esµIsac; dMbUgeRCIsykRkdasmYysnøwkBIkñúgRbGb; edayminemIl. rUceKbnþdMeNIrkarenHrhUt KMrUtagénkmµkrcMnYn 52 nak; RtUv)aneRCIserIs. ]TahrN_³ ]sSah_kmµ Nitra mankmµkrsrub cMnYn 845 nak;. KMrUtagénkmµkrcMnYn52nak; RtUveKeRCIserIsecjBIsakl sßitienaH. cUrGñkGFib,ayBITegVIenHedIm,I)anKMrUtagmYy edayeRbI viFIsa®sþ KMrUtagécdnüCaRbBn .
  7. 7. KMrUtagécdnüBIRKb;Rkum (Stratified Random Sampling) <ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüBIRKb;Rkum³ dMbUgeKEcksaklsßitiEdlmanTMhM N Ca k Rkumrg ¬dac;KñaBIr²¦ ehIyeKeRCIserIs KMrUtagBIRKb;RkumnImYy². viFIenHmanRbeyaCn_ enAeBlsaklsßitiGacRtUv)aneKEckCaRkum²c,as;las; edayEp¥kelIlkçN³rYmNamYy. </li></ul>]TahrN_³ ]bmafaeyIgcg;sikSaBIkarcMNayelIkar pSBVpSayBaNiC¢kmµ cMeBaHRkumh‘unFM²cMnYn 352 kñúgshrdæGaemrik edIm,IkMNt;faetIRkumh‘unEdl mancMNUlRTBüx<s; )ancMNayelIkarpSayBaNiC¢kmµkñú karlk;nImYy² eRcInCagRkumh‘unEdlmancMNUlTab rI»nPaBEdrrWeT. cUreRCIserIsKMrUtagRkumh‘unTMhM50tamviFIsaRsþ SRS . edIm,I[R)akdfaKMrUtagKWCatMNagd¾RtwmRtUvrbs;Rkum h‘unTaMg 352/ Rkumh‘unTaMgGs;RtUveKEckCaRkum tamPaKryéncMNUlRTBü ehIyKMrUtagEdl smamaRtnwgTMhMeFobénRkumRtUveKeRCIserIs edayécdnü.
  8. 8. KMrUtagécdnüBI;RkumécdnümYycMnYn (Cluster Sampling) <ul><li>KMrUtagécdnüBIRkummYycMnYn³ dMbUgeKEcksaklsßitiEdlmanTMhM N Ca k RkumrgtamFmµCatiEdlekIteLIg kñúgEdntMbn; rWtamlkçN³déTeTot. bnÞab;mk RkumTaMgGs;RtUeKeRCIserIsedayécdnü ehIyKMrUtagRtUv RbmUledayécdnüedaykareRCIserIsecjBIRkumnImYy². </li></ul>]TahrN_³ ]bmafaeyIgcg;kMNt;BITsSn³rbs;GñktaMglMenA kñúg Oregon sþIGMBIeKalneya)aykarBarbrisßan shBn½ nigrdæ. cUrGñkGFib,ayBITegVI edIm,I)anKMrUtagmYy edayeRbI viFIsa®sþ KMrUtagécdnüBIRkumécdnümYycMnYn . Cluster sampling GacRtUv)aneKeRbIedayEckrdæCaÉkta tUc² ¬tamtMbn; rI extþ¦ rYceKeRCIstMbn;edayécdnü--]TahrN_ ykbYntMbn;--bnÞab;mkykKMrUtagénGñktaMg lMenA BIkñúgtMbn;nImYy² kñúgcMeNamtMbn;TaMgenH ehIy smÖasBYkeK. cMNaM³ dMeNIrkarEbbenHCabnSMénkareFVIKMrUtagkmµBI RkumécdnümYycMnYn nigkareFVIKMrUtagkmµécdnügay.
  9. 9. 2-bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénmFümKMrUtag ( Sampling distribution for the sample means ) <ul><li>bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµén mFümKMrUtag CabMENgEckRbU)ab‘ÍlIetEdlmanral;mFümKMrUtagTaMgGs;rbs;TMhM KMrUtagEdleK[EdlRtUv)aneRCIsecjBIsaklsßiti. </li></ul>]TahrN_³ Rkumh‘un]sSahkmµmYymanbuKÁlikEpñkplitTaMg Gs; 7nak; ¬cat;TukfaCasaklsßiti¦. cMNUlRbcaMem:agrbs; buKÁliknImYy² RtUveK[kñúgtaragxageRkam. 1> cUrKNnamFümsaklsßiti. 2> cUrrkbMENgEckRbU)abénmFümKMrUtag cMeBaHKMrUtag TMhM2 . 3> cUrKNnamFüménbMENgEck. 4> etIeKGacGegáteXIjya:gdUecþcsþIGMBIsaklsßiti nig bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµ. 2> edIm,IQandl;bMENgKMrUtagénmFüm/ eyIgRtUveRCIserIsKMrUtag TMhM2Edl GacmanTaMgGs; edaymindak;vij ecjBIsaklsßiti bnÞab;mkcUrKNna mFüménKMrUtagnImYy². manKMrUtagEdlGacmanTaMGs; 21 . 1> mFümKsaklsßiti KwesµI $7.71 EdlrktamrUbmnþ³ 3> cMNYl RbcaMem:ag buKÁlik buKÁlik cMNYl RbcaMem:ag KMrUtag KMrUtag buKÁlik cMNYlRbcaMem:ag buKÁlik cMNYlRbcaMem:ag
  10. 10. 2-bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénmFümKMrUtag ¬RTwsþIbT¦
  11. 11. 2-bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénmFümKMrUtag ¬]TahrN_¦ KNna mFüménsaklsßiti dMeNaHRsay
  12. 12. dMeNaHRsay ¬t¦
  13. 13. x- krNIKMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ GaRs½y eyIg)an ³ eK)an taragbMENgEckKMrUtagénmFüm nigFatusMxan;² dUcxageRkam ³ dMeNaHRsay ¬t¦
  14. 14. dMeNaHRsay ¬t¦
  15. 15. 2-bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénmFümKMrUtag ¬]TahrN_¦ dMeNaHRsay
  16. 16. dMeNaHRsay ¬t¦
  17. 17. 3>bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénsmamaRt ¬ Sampling distribution of the proportion ¦
  18. 18. 3>bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénsmamaRt ¬t¦
  19. 19. dMeNaHRsay eKman p=60%=0.60 CasmamaRténGñke)aHeqñat[KNbkS A rbs;saklsßiti nig p s CasmamaRtGñke)aHeqñat[KNbkS A rbs;KMrUtagécdnü. eK)an³
  20. 20. 3>bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénsmamaRt ¬]TahN_¦ dMeNaHRsay k> krNIminGaRs½y ¬eRCIsedaydak;eTAvij¦ CMhanTI1³ rksmamaRténTMnijxUckñúgsaklsßiti nigKMlatKMrUénbMENgEckeTVFa nig rk z EdlRtUvKµanwg p s = 10.5/15 ¬ X+ 0. 5 KWCaktþaEktRmUvPaBCab;BIeTVFamkn½rma:l;¦ CMhanTI2³ kMNt;épÞcab;BI p s = 10.5/15 eLIg. eKman smamaRténTMnijxUckñúgsaklsßiti p=50/100=0.50 cMNaM³ kareFVIkMENPaBCab;cMeBaHEtKMrUécdnümanTMhMtUc.
  21. 21. 3>bMENgEckKMrUtagkmµénsmamaRt ¬]TahN_¦ dMeNaHRsay k> krNIGaRs½y ¬eRCIsedaymindak;eTAvij¦ eKman smamaRténTMnijxUckñúgsaklsßiti p=50/100=0.50
  22. 22. 4> témø)a:n;sµanCacMNuc nigcenøaHTukcitþ ¬ Point estimates and Confidence intervals ¦ témø)a:n;sµan CacMNucCatémøEdlKNna)an BIB½t’manKMrUtag nig RtUv)aneKeRbIedIm,IeFVICa témø)a:n;sµan)a:ra:Em:Rténsaklsßiti. cenøaHTukcitþ CacenøaHEdlKNna)anBIB½t’manKMrUtagedIm,I [)a:ra:Em:Rténsaklsßiti sßitenAkñúgcenøaHenH Rtg;RbU)abCak;lak;mYy. RbU)abCak;lak;EdleKR)ab;enH ehAfakRmitTukcitþ ¬ Level of confidence ¦ . cenøaHenHehAfa témø)a:n;sµanCacenøaH . eK)an³
  23. 23. 4> karbkRsaytémø)a:n;sµan ¬ Interval Estimates- Interpretation ¦ cMeBaHcenøaHTukcitþ 95% manRbEhlCa 95% éncenøaHTaMgLayEdlRtUv)ansg; nwgpÞúk)a:ra:Em:tEdl RtUv)a:n;sµan. ehIy 95% énmFümKMrUtagsRmab;TMhMKMrUtagCak;lak;mYy nwgsßitenAkñúgKmøatKMrUén saklsßitiEdlRtUveFVIetsþ. sMNakén mFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag ! TMhM 256 pÞúkmFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag @ TMhM 256 pÞúkmFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag # TMhM 256 pÞúkmFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag $ TMhM 256 pÞúkmFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag % TMhM 256 minpÞúk mFümsaklsßiti KMrUtag 6 TMhM 256 pÞúkmFümsaklsßiti
  24. 24. rebobKNnatémø Z edaysÁl;cenøaHTukcitþ ¬ How to Obtain z value for a Given Confidence Level ¦ cenøaHTukcitþ 95% KWCaEpñkkNþal 95% éntémøGegát. dUecñH enAsl; 5% RtUvEckCaBIresµIKñarvagcugTaMgsgxag. tamtarag Appendix B.1.
  25. 25. cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßitikñúgkrNI sÁal; cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßiti edaysÁal; KW³ cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßiti edaysÁal; KW³ ebI n/N < 0.05 RtUveRbI (*) eRBaH (*) mFümKMrUtag KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti témø Z cMeBaHcenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (>30) TMhMsaklsßiti minsÁal; mFümKMrUtag KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti témø Z cMeBaHcenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (>30) TMhMsaklsßiti sÁal;
  26. 26. ]TahrN_³ eKeRCIserIsKMrUécdnücMnYn 64)av BIkñúgsaklsßiti)avsIum:g;EdlmFümsaklsßiti minsÁal; ehIymanKmøatKMrU KILÚRkam bnÞab;BIføwgrYceKdwgfaTMgn;mFüm edayykcenøaHTukcitþesµI 95% cUrkMnt;cenøaHeCOCak;TMgn;sIum:g;énsaklsßiti ebIKMrUtagécdnüCa KMrUécdnüsamBaØminGaRs½y . dMeNaHRsay cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßitiKW³ cenøaHTukcitþsRmab; mFümsaklsßiti kñúgkrNI sÁal; ¬]TahrN_¦
  27. 27. ]TahrN_³ eKeRCIserIsKMrUécdnücMnYn 64)av BIkñúgsaklsßiti)avsIum:g;EdlmFümsaklsßiti minsÁal; ehIymanKmøatKMrU KILÚRkam bnÞab;BIføwgrYceKdwgfaTMgn;mFüm edayykcenøaHTukcitþesµI 99% cUrkMnt;cenøaHeCOCak;TMgn;sIum:g;énsaklsßiti ebIKMrUtagécdnüCaKMrUécdnüeRCIseday mindak;eTAvijBIsaklsßitiTMhM N=1000 )av. dMeNaHRsay cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßitiKW³ cenøaHTukcitþsRmab; mFümsaklsßiti kñúgkrNI sÁal; ¬]TahrN_¦
  28. 28. krNI minsÁal; KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti => bMENgEck t enAkñúgsßanPaBeFVIKMrUtag CaFmµta eKminsÁal;KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti ( σ ) . lkçN³énbMENgEck t ³ 1>¦ vaCa bMENgEckCab; dUcbMENgEck Z Edr 2>¦ vaman ragCaCYYg nig sIuemRTI dUcbMENgEck Z Edr 3>¦ minEmnCabMENgEck t EtmYyenaHeT EtvaCa RKYsar énbMENgEck t . bMENgEck t TaMgGs;man mFüm = 0 b:uEnþmanKmøatKMrUERbRbYlGaRs½ynwgTMhMénKMrUtag/ n 4>¦ bMENgEck t manlkçN³lat nig TabenARtg;cMNuckNþalCag bMENgEcknr½ma:l; EteTaHCaya:gNa bMENgEck t xitCitbMENg Ecknr½ma:l;. etIsÁal;KmøatKMrU saklsßitirWeT? snµt;Camunfa saklsßitieKarBtamc,ab;nr½ma:l; cUreRbIbMENgEck Z cUreRbIbMENgEck t
  29. 29. cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßitikñúgkrNI minsÁal; cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßiti eRCIsdak;eTAvij KW³ cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;mFümsaklsßiti eRCIsmindak;eTAvij KW³ ebI n/N < 0.05 RtUveRbI (**) eRBaH finite population correction factor (**) mFümKMrUtag KmøatKMrUénKMrUtag témø cMeBaH cenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (<30) TMhMsaklsßiti minsÁal; KmøatKMrUénsaklsßiti minsÁal; mFümKMrUtag KmøatKMrUénKMrUtag témø cMeBaH cenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (<30) TMhMsaklsßiti sÁal; KmøatKMrUénsaklsßiti minsÁal;
  30. 30. cenøaHeCOCak;sRmab; ¬]TahrN_edayeRbIbMENgEck t ¦ ]TahrN_³ eragcRksMbkkg;mYycg;eFVIkarGegátBIGayukal RkLasMbkkg;rbs;xøÜn. KMrUtagTMhM !0sMbkkg; RtUv)aneRbIkñúgkar ebIkbrcMgay %0/000ma:y )anbgðan[dwgfamFümKMrUtagesµI 0>#@ Gij énRkLakg;enAsl; edaymanKmøatKMrUesµI 0>0( Gij . 1>¦ cUrsg;cenøaHTukcitþ (% % sRmab;témøCamFümsaklsßiti. 2>¦ etIvasmehtuplEdrrWeTcMeBaHeragcRkkñúgkarsnñidæanfa bnÞab;BI %0/000 ma:y brimaNmFümsaklsßitiénRkLakg;Edl enAsl; KwesµI 0>30 Gij ? 2>¦ snñidæan³ eragcRkGacR)akdd¾smehtuplfaCeRmARkLa EdlenAsl;CamFümKWenAcenøaHBI 0>@%^ eTA 0>#*$ Gij.
  31. 31. cenøaHeCOCak;sRmab; edaymanktþaEktRmUvsaklsßitikMNt; ¬]TahrN_¦ mFümsaklsßitiTMngCaFMCag $432 b:unEnþ tUcCag $468 . mFümsaklsßitiGacesµI $445 b:uEnþ minesµI $425 eT eRBaH $445 sßitenAkñúgcenøaHTukcitþ cMENk $425 minenAkñúgcenøaHenHeT. ]TahrN_³ manRKYsarcMnYn @%0 enAkñúg Scandia, Pennsylvania . KMrUtagécdnüTMhM 40 énRKYsar TaMgenH)an[dwgfa karbricakcUlkñúgRBHviha RbcaMqñaMKWesµI $450 nigKmøatKMrUénKMrUtagenHKW $75 . etImFümsaklsßitiGacesµI $445 rW $425 EdrrWeT? etImFümsaklsßitiesµInwgb:unµan? rktémø)a:n;sµan 90% sRmab; mFümsaklsßiti. tambRmab;³ N = 250 n = 40 s = $75 eday dUecñHRtUveRbI ktþaEktRmUvsaklsþitikMNt;. eKminsÁal; KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti dUecñHeKRtUveRbI bMENgEck t ¬rW GaceRbIbMENgEck Z eRBaH n>30 .
  32. 32. cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;smamaRtsaklsßitikñúgkrNI sÁal; cenøaHTukcitþsRmab; smamaRtsaklsßit i eRCIsdak;eTAvij KW³ cenøaHTukcitþsRmab; smamaRtsaklsßiti eRCIsmindak;eTAvij KW³ finite population correction factor ebI n/N < 0.05 RtUveRbI (***) eRBaH (***) smamaRtKMrUtag témø cMeBaH cenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (>30) TMhMsaklsßiti minsÁal; KmøatKMrUénsaklsßiti sÁal; smamaRtKMrUtag témø cMeBaH cenøaHTukcitþCak;lak;NamYy cMnYntémøGegátsrubkñúgKMrUtag (>30) TMhMsaklsßiti sÁal; KmøatKMrUénsaklsßiti sÁal;
  33. 33. cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;smamaRtsaklsßiti ¬]TahrN_¦ ]TahrN_³ shKmtMNag[ BBA kMBugBicarNa elIsMeNIrbBa¢ÚlKñaCamYy Teamsters Union . eyagtamc,ab;shKm BBA ya:gehacNas; 3/4 énsmaCikPaBshKm RtUvEtyl;RBmcMeBaH kardak; bBa©ÚlKña. KMrUtagécdnüénsmaCik BBA bc©úb,nñcMnYn @/000nak; )an[dwgfa !/^00nak; manKeRmage)aH eqñatKaMRTsMeNIrbBa©ÚlKñaenH. cUrKNnasmamaRtsaklsßiti. cUrsg;cenøaHTukcitþ 95% sRmab;smamaRtsaklsßiti. edayEp¥kelIkarseRmccitþrbs;Gñk elIB½t¾mankñúg KMrUtag etIGñkGacsnñidæanfasmamaRtcaM)ac;énsmaCik BBA eBjcitþcMeBaHkarbBa©ÚlKñaEdrrWeT? ehtuGVI? dMeNaHRsay snñidæan³ sMeNIrdak;bBa©ÚlKñanwgTMngCaGnum½t)an eRBaHenøaH)a:n;sµanpÞúktémøFMCag 75% énsmaCikPaB.
  34. 34. cenøaHTukcitþsRmab;smamaRtsaklsßiti ¬]TahrN_¦ ]TahrN_³ shRKasplitkg;LanmYyplitkg;LanCaeRcIn. edIm,IBinitüemIlPaBsViténkg;LangTaMgenaH eKeRCIs edayécdnünUvkg;LancMnYn n=50 CaKMrUtagécdnü. eKGegáteXIjfamankg;Lan 10% mineqøIytbnwg sMNUmBr. cUrkMNt;cenøaHTukcitþ sRmab;smamaRt p énkg;LanTaMgGs;EdlplitmintamsMNUmBr eday ykkMritTukcitþ 95% ebI³ k> KMrUtagCaKMrUtagminGaRs½y. x> KMrUécdnüCaKMrUécdnüeRCIsmindak;eTAvij nigLanEdlplitTaMgGs;mancMnYn 400 kg ;. dMeNaHRsay
  35. 35. kareRCIserIsTMhMKMrUtagd¾smRsb manktþa 3ya:gEdlkMNt;TMhMKMrUtag EdlKµanktþa NamYymanTMnak;TMngedaypÞal; cMeBaHTMhM saklsßitieT. 1.) kMritTukcitþEdlcg;)an 2.) kMritel¥ógEdlGñkRsavRCavnwgTTYyk)an 3.) karERbRbYlkñúgsaklsßitiEdlkMBugRtUvsikSa dMeNaHRsay Edl ³ TMhMKMrUtag Catémønr½ma:l;KMrUEdlRtUvKñanwgkMrit TukcitþEdlcg;)an KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti kMhusEdlGacGnuBaØat[manFMbMput ]TahrN_³ nisSitenAkñúgrdæ)alsaFarNcg;kMNt;brimaN mFümEdl smaCik énRkumRbwkSaRkugkñúg TIRkugFM² rkcMNUl)ankñúgmYyEx BIkareFVICa smaCik. kMhuskñúg kar)a:n;sµanmFümKWRtUv tUcCag $100 edaymancenøaHTukcitþ 95% . nisSitenaH)anrkeXIjfar)aykarN_eday naykdæankargarEdl)an)a:n;sµanBIKmøatKMrUKW RtUvesµI $1,000 . etIeKRtUvkareRCIserIsTMhM KMrUtagEdlRtUvkarb:unµan?
  36. 36. kareRCIserIsTMhMKMrUtagedIm,I)a:n;sµansmamaRtsaklsßiiti dMeNaHRsay Edl ³ TMhMKMrUtag Catémønr½ma:l;KMrUEdlRtUvKñanwgkMrit TukcitþEdlcg;)an KmøatKMrUsaklsßiti kMhusEdlGacGnuBaØat[manFMbMput ]TahrN_³ cMNaM³ ebIKµanB½t¾manGMBIRbU)abénPaB eCaKC½y eyIgyk p = 0.5 . køib American Kennel Club cg;)a:n;sµansmamaRt énekµgEdlmanEqáCastVciBa©wm.RbsinebIkøwbenHcg; )an kar)a:n;sµan EdlRtUvCamYy 3 % énsmamaRt saklsßiti etIBYkeKRtUvTak;TgsmÖasn_ekµg²cMnYn b:unµannak;? snµt;cenøaHTukcitþesµI 95% ehIykøwbenH )an)a:n;sµanfa 30% énekµg²manEqáCastVciBa©wm. karsikSamYyRtUvkar)a:n;sµanBIsmamaRténTIRkug EdlmanGñkcak;sMramÉkCn. GñkGegátcg;)an kRmitkMhus RtUvCamYy 0.10 énsmamaRtsakl sßiti nigkRmitTukcitþKWesµI 90 PaKry ehIyKµan kar)a:n;sµanNamYysþIGMBIsmamaRtsaklsßitieT. etIeKRtUvakarTMhMKMrUtagb:unµan? ]TahrN_³
  37. 37. cb;edaybribUN_ GrKuNcMeBaHkarykcitþTukdak;¡ rrr<sss

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