Migration and girl child's education


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This contains findings of empirical research carried out on the people from border areas of Jammu, who have to flee their homes everytime crisis strikes the border.

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Migration and girl child's education

  1. 1. Migration and Girl Child’s Education Dr Neeru Sharma, Reader Ruchira Sapru, Scholar Sukhwinder and Vandana, Students Deptt of Home Science University of Jammu,Jammu
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>In any catastrophe whether natural or man made three groups are most vulnerable and suffer the most – </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Women, and </li></ul><ul><li>the Aged </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing can be done much so far as the nature made sufferings are concerned, but the last four decades have seen a phenomenal upsurge in man made sufferings. </li></ul><ul><li>Armed conflict is one of the most common man made disasters, especially for women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>It renders people homeless, displacing them from their familiar social environment and placing them at the mercy of fate. </li></ul><ul><li>When this displacement occurs within the borders of a country, these people are given the nomenclature of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), however in India they are generally referred to as “migrants” . </li></ul><ul><li>An overwhelming majority of IDP’s are “women” and “children” struggling to survive with little hope of returning home, sometimes years after actual conflict has ended. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Jammu has become a land of migrants </li></ul><ul><li>*1947 migrants </li></ul><ul><li>*Migrants of wars of 1965 and1971 </li></ul><ul><li>*Kashmiri migrants </li></ul><ul><li>*Migrants from Doda, Bhaderwah, Kishtwar </li></ul><ul><li>*Border migrants </li></ul><ul><li>They have all taken refuge in Jammu </li></ul><ul><li>Some have been rehabilitated others still facing acute crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Recent years have seen an increased conflict along the international border between India and Pakistan leading to internal migration of people residing along the border areas . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Camp Sites
  5. 5. Camp site
  6. 6. <ul><li>These people deserted their houses, leaving behind their belongings and cattle to take shelter in Government Schools and open areas in and around Akhnoor. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 5000 families were evacuated due to intensified firing and shelling from the Pakistani side. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Army laid land mines along the Actual Line of Control (ALC). </li></ul><ul><li>Entire agricultural tracts became unsafe to venture into. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘migrants’ were accommodated in camps ostensibly for better management of relief measures, but after that, they became nobody’s children. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a Governmental organization for “migrants” from the Kashmir valley, but the “Border Migrants” were not being looked after by any such organization, </li></ul><ul><li>Their responsibility was given to already overburdened district administrations. </li></ul><ul><li>The relief they were getting was meager. </li></ul><ul><li>They were not even recognized as IDP’s which would have helped them in securing relief from specialized international agencies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>This led to sharp decline in the rate of school goers because the first concern was to satisfy basic needs of food, shelter, clothing and security </li></ul><ul><li>As happens in every war and internal conflict these children became the victims </li></ul><ul><li>Besides other losses they also lost very crucial years of their life </li></ul><ul><li>In the camps the schools were the last to come up </li></ul><ul><li>Schools for them meant open air, scorching heat, with a stray black sheet hung on a lone nail. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of severe cold and harsh heat they were left out in the open </li></ul><ul><li>The present paper will focus on the condition of the education of the girl children in the border migrant camp of Devipur near Jammu </li></ul><ul><li>1300 families were residing in this camp </li></ul><ul><li>According to KGNMT there were about 1568 children in the age group of 0-15 years in the camp and 600 had dropped out. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Objectives <ul><li>To find out: </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for dropout </li></ul><ul><li>attitude of children towards education </li></ul><ul><li>attitude of parents towards education </li></ul><ul><li>To know about the initiatives taken by the government and the non governmental organizations for children’s education in the camps </li></ul><ul><li>To know the status of education of the girl child after </li></ul><ul><li>shifting back to their native border areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results from the study in camps 11(44) 14(56) 24(96) 1(4) Type of School Govt Private - 2(8) 9(36) 9(36) 5(20) 3(12) 8(32) 8(32) 4(16) 2(8) Present educational status 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th 6(24) 8(32) 1(4) 4(16) 1(4) 9(36) 9(36) 4(16) Ordinal Position 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5th 22(88) 23(92) Age (in years) 12-16 Schoolgoers N=25(%) Dropouts N=25(%) Background Information
  10. 10. Reasons for dropout <ul><li>Most of the females dropped at the age of 11-16 years </li></ul><ul><li>when they were studying in 8 th -10 th </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons were: </li></ul><ul><li>Migration 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Distance of school 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Problem 16% </li></ul><ul><li>Illness of mother 8% </li></ul><ul><li>92% would not like to continue studies but they are also not satisfied with their educational levels </li></ul>
  11. 11. Life in camps <ul><li>96% parents of dropouts approve of their education as compared to 44% school goers </li></ul><ul><li>Siblings of 64% dropouts and 76% school goers are attending the school </li></ul><ul><li>Dropout sample is of the view that they (siblings) are younger and interested in studies </li></ul><ul><li>72% dropouts say that migration has effected their families financially and has resulted in poor health of the family where as similar views were expressed by 56% school goers </li></ul><ul><li>48% dropouts and 12 % school goers believe that their family relations have been strained because of migration </li></ul><ul><li>Problems they have faced in camps include water scarcity, electric supply, </li></ul><ul><li>financial and lack of medical facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Want to return to villages even though every thing is destroyed yet it is their own. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Girls washing clothes and boys idling their time playing cards
  13. 13. Life in a tent
  14. 14. Peer Influences <ul><li>68% friends of dropouts, who live in these camps, attend the schools </li></ul><ul><li>All the friends of school goers do the same </li></ul><ul><li>Their friends encourage them to attend the school </li></ul>
  15. 15. Perceptions and Activities of Children in the Camps 6(29) 11(52) 4(19) - 5(20) 20(80) Activities performed Fetch water Wash utensils Full household work 21(84) 4(16) 25(100) - Help in house hold chores Yes No 19(76) 4(16) 5(20) 20(80) Life after migration No change Restrictions 1(4) 9(36) 12(48 ) - 3(12) 4(16) - 9(36) 12(48) - Aim in life…. Defence services Doctor Teacher Housewife Undecided 21(84) 1(4) 3(12) 25(100) - - Importance of education… To get good job Independence knowledge Schoolgoers N=25(%) Dropouts N=25(%) Responses
  16. 16. Educational facilities provided by the Government <ul><li>Two govt schools ,upgraded to middle school, running in 3 tents provided by the UNICEF </li></ul><ul><li>13 teachers and 40 children in the school </li></ul><ul><li>Two rooms were there but used as office and storeroom so classes under the trees </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding noises hindered education </li></ul><ul><li>A water pump near the school meant squabbles for water and loud discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Two private schools too had shifted from the border areas to the camps but the facilities were minimum </li></ul><ul><li>They too were middle schools </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these teachers were undergraduates </li></ul>
  17. 17. Private school (the pump is visible)
  18. 18. Government Schools
  19. 19. <ul><li>All the four schools lacked infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Sports material was dumped in stores </li></ul><ul><li>Though the ratio of teacher child was 1:10 yet their interaction was negative </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers would not allow the students to come closer as their dresses were soiled because of siiting on floors or torn mats </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers maintained a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Were of the view that migration has effected the education badly but as the time was passing the children were showing better performance again </li></ul><ul><li>No effort to bring the dropouts to the schools was observed </li></ul>
  20. 20. Efforts by the NGO’s <ul><li>Only Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust was found working in the camps supported by OXFAM-GB. </li></ul><ul><li>Started a balwadi but because of lack of interest by the people discontinued </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage people to enroll their children in school </li></ul><ul><li>Provide vocational training in cutting, tailoring, embroidery to the girls in the camps </li></ul>
  21. 21. After return to the native villages <ul><li>Financial constraints a major problem for both school goers and dropouts </li></ul><ul><li>Preference was being given to boys education in the dropouts families </li></ul><ul><li>62% School goers perceive education as important though they were not satisfied with the facilities in the schools they were studying in </li></ul><ul><li>They desire to have well qualified teachers though they had word of praise for their teachers </li></ul><ul><li>They had desire to study upto 12 th (32%), graduation (42%) and post graduation(26%) </li></ul><ul><li>46% believe that education would help them fetch good jobs and 50% want to become teachers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Dropouts time use <ul><li>Financial problems and distance of school main reasons for dropout </li></ul><ul><li>62% would like to continue education if given chance rest not interested </li></ul><ul><li>Time spent in </li></ul><ul><li>Household work 64% </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Craft 44% </li></ul><ul><li>T V watching 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Siblings 8% </li></ul><ul><li>40% have done a vocational course due to personal interest </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them have no future plans </li></ul>
  23. 23. Parents views <ul><li>40% of parents of both dropouts and school goers believe that education is important for getting a good match </li></ul><ul><li>40% parents of school goers believe that it is for good social position </li></ul><ul><li>56%Parents of school goers believe that their daughters would continue education but44% say that she may have to leave because of financial constraints and distance from school </li></ul><ul><li>Parents of the dropouts said that their daughters had to leave education because of distance of school(72%), financial constraint(28%) ,Lack of good environment in the camps ( 48%) ,Lack of interest (60%). </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>60% did not want to send their daughters to school again </li></ul><ul><li>All the teachers said that the girls had lost interest in education because of lack of infrastructure(57%) and distance of school (50%) </li></ul><ul><li>They also believe that if the girls are motivated and provided incentives and basic facilities like water, toilets and electricity ,at least, they would come back to schools. </li></ul><ul><li>After migration the conditions of the schools had become pitiable </li></ul><ul><li>Observations in the schools showed that teachers were idling their time and students too were seen wasting time or doing activities other than school work. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Suggestions <ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Understand value of education and encourage their wards </li></ul><ul><li>especially those who have dropped out. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide not only education but healing touch to mitigate their trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Interact with and motivate parents of dropout children </li></ul>
  26. 26. Governmental and Non Governmental Organisation <ul><li>Have better disaster management policies </li></ul><ul><li>This situation has arisen many times and may occur again so a line of action has to be readied to face any such situation </li></ul><ul><li>Children are the worst hit especially girls as the insecurity has a fallout on their movements being restricted so thought has to be given to this </li></ul><ul><li>Involve international agencies as they can help and have better strategies in humanitarian crisis </li></ul><ul><li>In the whole process of migration and afterward no women came forward to relate her situation so her problems and sufferings were never known </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>She suffered because of her children's losses but it was only the fields and mines that the government talked about , her problems should have been investigated </li></ul><ul><li>After the girl child suffered 5 years of educational loss the government or NGO’s could have started condensed courses for them but the efforts are not visible </li></ul><ul><li>The girls don’t want to study with younger children so efforts can be made to have evening or special schools or classes for them </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of human potential suffered but the balming process never started. </li></ul>
  28. 28. THANK YOU