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Atomic Structure


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Atomic Structure

  1. 1. Atomic Structure
  2. 2. The atom <ul><li>Def: the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are tiny! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you lined up 100,000,000 copper atoms side by side, they would produce a line only 1 cm long. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Initial Thoughts <ul><li>Democritus – atoms are indivisible and indestructible </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton modified this theory through research. He determined that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.atoms of the same element are identical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.atoms can combine to form compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated from their compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thompson was the first to discover that atoms contain subatomic particles </li></ul>
  4. 4. Subatomic Particles Particle Location Charge Mass Proton (p + ) 1.67 x 10 -28 g Neutron (n o ) 1.67 x 10 -28 g Electron (e - ) negligible
  5. 5. Using the Periodic Table <ul><li>How do I determine the number of protons? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I determine the number of electrons? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I determine the mass number? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I determine the number of neutrons? </li></ul><ul><li>Practice on your own </li></ul>
  6. 6. Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Lithium -7 and Lithium-6 </li></ul><ul><li>Draw Bohr models of Carbon-12 and Carbon-13 </li></ul><ul><li>Why does mass number (protons + neutrons) differ from atomic mass (the number you find on the periodic table)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(pg 114) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Electrons <ul><li>According to the discovery Bohr made, electrons are found in orbitals (or energy levels) surrounding the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>1 st energy level – can hold 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd energy level– can hold 8 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd energy level – can hold 18 electrons </li></ul>
  8. 8. Valence Electrons <ul><li>The number of valence electrons can be determined by looking at the Roman Numeral at the top of each group (or family) or the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of valence electrons can give us hints about the reactivity of that element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals lose valence electrons to form cations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-metals gain valence electrons to form anions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pg 162 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment <ul><li>Proposed that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the atom is mostly empty space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nucleus is concentrated in the center of the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a dime in the middle of football field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demo 1 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. In-class assessment <ul><li>You have the next 2o-25 minutes to complete an open notebook quiz. </li></ul>
  11. 11. HW <ul><li>Section 4.1 review worksheet – due Thursday </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4.2 review worksheet – due Friday </li></ul>