Linear Shaft Motor Application Resource Tool (SMART)
Current version V5.2.9E
Thank you for making use of Nippon Pulse America’s Linear Shaft Motor Application Resource
Tool (SMART). This tool is provided to assist you in selecting the correct Linear Shaft Motor for
your application. While every effort has been made to ensure that all calculations are correct,
many variables contribute to the selection of the correct Linear Shaft Motor for your application.
Nippon Pulse America cannot be held responsible for an incorrectly selected Linear Shaft Motor
since we cannot control all the variables of your system. Please verify any information gathered
SMART is a Microsoft Excel Workbook that makes use of Excel’s macro capability. If macros
are not enabled on your machine, SMART will not work.
I. What is available in SMART?
SMART is composed of 13 worksheets. The worksheets are as follows:
1) Read Me (Brief explanation of the Linear Shaft Motor selection software)
It provides an explanation of the Selection Process Flow of SMART. The
“Result” worksheet (see below) is the worksheet used for the selection
2) Worksheet (Worksheet to assist in collecting information for entry into SMART)
Please make sure to use the worksheet to collect all information needed before
running the motor selection software section of SMART.
3) Result (Motor selection software itself). Start selection software by double
clicking anywhere on the “Result” sheet.
a. The temperature shown by the calculations is the surface temperature of
the coil, which is inside the forcer.
b. As for the surface temperature rise of the coil inside the forcer, it is rated
for 110K in a 23°C environment.
c. The mass of the forcer is automatically added to the calculations.
d. Please be sure to insert the load, voltage, and the motor you are
considering into the template.
e. If the selected motor will not work within the conditions you chose, you
will receive an error message letting you know what needs to be corrected
f. The data on the “Spec Sheet” worksheet is used for making the
calculations. We have made every effort to verify that all data on the
“Spec Sheet” worksheet is correct. Please do not modify this data, it will
have an adverse effect on your results.
4) Forcer, Coil temperature difference
This is a list of the standard temperature differences between the outside of the
Forcer and the Coil surface.
5) Spec Sheet (specification chart)
The data on the “Spec Sheet” worksheet is used for making the calculations. We
have made every effort to verify that all data on the “Spec Sheet” worksheet is
correct. Please do not modify this data, it will have an adverse effect on your
6) Move Data
Data for all moves is stored here for use in the calculations.
7) Force - Duty Curve
Will generate a Force Duty Curve for any Linear Shaft Motor. When the Window
below is displayed, select the correct motor and press OK. The Curve will be
8) Tandem forcer interval
Information for use of two forcers on one shaft.
9) Shaft Weight
Shaft Mass information.
10) Shaft Bending
Shaft Bending information
11) Magnetic Field
Information on the Magnetic Flux Density on the Linear Shaft Motor
13) Velocity Ripple
II. Software operation explanation for “Linear Simple Selection, Ver5.2.8E”
1) Please open “Linear Simple Selection, Ver5.2.8E”
2) When you see the message that macros are used, please click the “Enable
Macros” button for the program to work correctly.
3) Please select the “Result” worksheet tab.
4) Please double click the center of this worksheet.
5) You will be asked the units for which to make calculations.
6) You will next see the input selection, which is shown below.
7) The friction coefficient range for most linear guides is 0.02-0.03; however, the
values for residual pressure, seal resistance, etc., should also be taken into
consideration. You should calculate your resistance settings before entering your
friction coefficient. For example, we would like to move a load, M1. The power
to move the load is M2. We need to calculate the friction coefficient. The formula
would be M2/M1. Please see Appendix A for more information about the friction
8) Enter the load information. Only the mass to be moved needs to be entered, the
mass of the forcer is automatically added to the calculations.
9) The Voltage should be equal to the input potential of the servo driver you are
10) Enter the environmental temperature data.
11) Enter the allowable temperature. In this case, the allowable temperature is equal
to the temperature of the coil inside the forcer.
12) Choose whether your application will be horizontal or vertical. This factor is
important for the force coefficient. The amount of force required will be different
for horizontal and vertical. For vertical applications, force will keep the forcer
from falling. Please carefully choose your force coefficient. If you set it too high,
the coil will overheat and the motor will cease operation. If you set it too low, the
forcer will not stop moving, as you require.
13) Select the designated motor.
14) If you do not enter all the data, you will receive an error message after you
attempt to calculate the motion.
15) Click the “Define Move Profiles” button
16) The Define Move Profile window will open (see figure below).
17) Please enter the stroke length you would like to have.
18) Select if Motion is defined “By Setting Time”, “By Work Velocity”, or “By
19) Input the appropriate variables for your movement.
20) Enter the amount of time to pause before beginning the next motion in the Interval
21) Click on “Save Current Move”
22) If this is a new move which has not been named the following window will
23) Enter a Suitable move name in the box, in this case we will use “1”, press OK.
24) If additional operational patterns are needed, please repeat steps 17 – 23.
25) After you have saved the last move select the “Define Motion Profile” button the
following window will open.
26) If an additional pause is needed for all moves, for example settling time of the
driver, this should be entered in the Interval window. Note this time is added to
the move pause time entered with each move.
27) Select pattern number to be used.
28) Select “Forward” OR "Backward" if in Horizontal mode. In this example,
“Forward" is selected.
29) If you are in Vertical mode your options are “Up” and “Down”
30) Then click "Next ".
31) The calculation for that move is performed in the background.
32) For more additional moves repeat steps 27 - 30
33) The calculation can be repeated indefinitely under these conditions. When
finished select the “Calculate – End” button.
34) Your results will be displayed and can be printed.
1) It is possible to have as much as a ±10°C error in the temperature calculations
displayed; therefore, it is recommended that you verify all data before selecting a
Linear Shaft Motor.
IV. Appendix A
1) Coefficient of Friction
Extreme care is needed in using friction coefficients and additional independent references
should be used. For any specific application the ideal method of determining the coefficient of
friction is by trials. A short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the
coefficient of friction is affected by surface films. When a metal surface is perfectly clean in a
vacuum, the friction is much higher than the normal accepted value and seizure can easily
Effect of oxide film etc on coefficient of static friction
MATERIAL Clean Dry
Oxide Film Film
Steel-Steel 0.78 0.27 0.39
Copper-Copper 1.21 0.76 0.74
Coefficient Of Friction
MATERIAL 1 MATERIAL 2 DRY Greasy
Static Sliding Static Sliding
Aluminum Aluminum 1,05-1,35 1,4 0,3
Aluminum Mild Steel 0,61 0,47
Brake Material Cast Iron 0,4
Brake Material Cast Iron (Wet) 0,2
Brass Cast Iron 0,3
Brick Wood 0,6
Bronze Cast Iron 0,22
Bronze Steel 0,16
Cadmium Cadmium 0,5 0,05
Cadmium Mild Steel 0,46
Cast Iron Cast Iron 1,1 0,15 0,07
Cast Iron Oak 0,49 0,075
Chromium Chromium 0,41 0,34
Copper Cast Iron 1,05 0,29
Copper Copper 1,0 0,08
Copper Mild Steel 0,53 0,36 0,18
Copper-Lead Alloy Steel 0,22 -
Diamond Diamond 0,1 0,05 - 0,1
Diamond Metal 0,1 -0,15 0,1
Glass Glass 0,9 - 1,0 0,4 0,1 - 0,6 0,09-0,12
Glass Metal 0,5 - 0,7 0,2 - 0,3
Glass Nickel 0,78 0,56
Graphite Graphite 0,1 0,1
Graphite Steel 0,1 0,1
Graphite (In vacuum) Graphite (In vacuum) 0,5 - 0,8
Hard Carbon Hard Carbon 0,16 0,12 - 0,14
Hard Carbon Steel 0,14 0,11 - 0,14
Iron Iron 1,0 0,15 - 0,2
Lead Cast Iron 0,43
Leather Wood 0,3 - 0,4
Leather Metal(Clean) 0,6 0,2
Leather Metal(Wet) 0,4
Leather Oak (Parallel grain) 0,61 0,52
Magnesium Magnesium 0,6 0,08
Nickel Nickel 0,7-1,1 0,53 0,28 0,12
Nickel Mild Steel 0,64; 0,178
Nylon Nylon 0,15 - 0,25
Coefficient Of Friction
MATERIAL 1 MATERIAL 2 DRY Greasy
Static Sliding Static Sliding
Oak Oak (parallel grain) 0,62 0,48
Oak Oak (cross grain) 0,54 0,32 0,072
Platinum Platinum 1,2 0,25
Plexiglas Plexiglas 0,8 0,8
Plexiglas Steel 0,4 - 0,5 0,4 - 0,5
Polystyrene Polystyrene 0,5 0,5
Polystyrene Steel 0,3-0,35 0,3-0,35
Polythene Steel 0,2 0,2
Rubber Asphalt (Dry) 0,5-0,8
Rubber Asphalt (Wet)
Rubber Concrete (Dry) 0,6-0,85
Rubber Concrete (Wet) 0,45-0,75
Saphire Saphire 0,2 0,2
Silver Silver 1,4 0,55
Sintered Bronze Steel - 0,13
Solids Rubber 1,0 - 4,0 --
Steel Aluminium Bros 0,45
Steel Brass 0,35 0,19
Steel(Mild) Brass 0,51 0,44
Steel (Mild) Cast Iron 0,23 0,183 0,133
Steel Cast Iron 0,4 0,21
Steel Copper Lead Alloy 0,22 0,16 0,145
Steel (Hard) Graphite 0,21 0,09
Steel Graphite 0,1 0,1
Steel (Mild) Lead 0,95 0,95 0,5 0,3
Steel (Mild) Phos. Bros 0,34 0,173
Steel Phos Bros 0,35
Steel(Hard) Polythened 0,2 0,2
Steel(Hard) Polystyrene 0,3-0,35 0,3-0,35
Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) 0,74 0,57 0,09-0,19
Steel(Hard) Steel (Hard) 0,78 0,42 0,05 -0,11 0,029-.12
Steel Zinc (Plated on steel) 0,5 0,45 - -
Teflon Steel 0,04 0,04 0,04
Teflon Teflon 0,04 0,04 0,04
Tin Cast Iron .32
Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide 0,2-0,25 0,12
Tungsten Carbide Steel 0,4 - 0,6 0,08 - 0,2
Tungsten Carbide Copper 0,35
Tungsten Carbide Iron 0,8
Wood Wood(clean) 0,25 - 0,5
Wood Wood (Wet) 0,2
Wood Metals(Clean) 0,2-0,6
Wood Metals (Wet) 0,2
Wood Brick 0,6
Wood Concrete 0,62
Zinc Zinc 0,6 0,04
Zinc Cast Iron 0,85 0,21
Source of above values: The values are checked against a variety of internet and literature sources, including Machinerys Handbook
(Eighteenth edition) and Kempes Engineers Year Book (1980).