What is social capital


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What is social capital

  1. 1. What is social capital? By Yevoon 08533970 Otto 08532389
  2. 2. Contents:  Definition  Background  Roots  Types  Community, civil society, education  Theory  Evaluating  Argument  Promotion
  3. 3. Definition  Used in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, public health and sociology  "something of a cure-all“  Physical capital and Human capital
  4. 4. Background  L.J. Hanifan's 1916  “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups ” ----Robert Salisbury
  5. 5. Background  Thinkers exploring the relation between associational life and democracy were using similar concepts regularly by the 19th century, drawing on the work of earlier writers such as James Madison ( The Federalist Papers) and Alexis de Tocqueville (Democracy in America) to integrate concepts of social cohesion and connectedness into the pluralist tradition in American political science. John Dewey may have made the first direct mainstream use of "social capital" in The School and Society in 1899, though he did not offer a definition.
  6. 6. Social Capital of Blogspace Network Layer Unit Size Distribution of Links Social Capital Weblog Mode Political Network 1000s Power Law/Scale-free Sarnoff's Law (N) Publishing Social Network 150 Random/Bell Curve Metcalfe's Law (N2) Communication Creative Network 12 Even/Flat Reed's Law (2n) Collaboration
  7. 7. Roots  Definitional issues ---human capital ---Social Capitalism
  8. 8. Sub-types  bonding social capital and bridging social capital  Social capital development: Facebook or Myspace
  9. 9. Measurement  The sum of society’s membership  The level of cohesion of a group  “Bowling Alone” ---- Robert Putnam
  10. 10. Measurement Social capital not only measures the relationship of people and their community, but also the relationship of these citizens with their animal companions.
  11. 11. Type
  12. 12. Social capital in communities
  13. 13. Social capital in communities Relationships matter Communities
  14. 14. Social capital and civil society  private organizations  Social capital: the nature and essence of social relations in the community  Civil society: the institutional of these relations
  15. 15. Social capital and education  "Child development is powerfully shaped by social capital"  "presence of social capital has been linked to various positive outcomes, particularly in education". ---Putnam
  16. 16. Social Capital Theory 1, School of social norm: Putnam, Coleman, Fukuyama 2, School of network embededness: Granovette, Burt 3, School of social resource: Loury, Bourdien
  17. 17. Evaluating  Social capital is linked to the success of democracy and political involvement the recent decline in American political participation ---“Bowling Alone” Robert Putnam
  18. 18. Argument---negative  Social capital (in the institutional " Robert Putnam sense) may also lead to bad outcomes if the political institution and democracy in a specific country is not strong enough and is therefore overpowered by the social capital groups.
  19. 19. Life without social capital  Your corn is ripe today; mine will be so tomorrow. 'Tis profitable for us both that I shou'd labour with you today, and that you shou'd aid me tomorrow. I have no kindness for you, and know that you have as little for me. I will not, therefore, take any pains on your account; and should I labour with you on my account, I know I shou'd be disappointed, and that I shou'd in vain depend upon your gratitude. Here then I leave you to labour alone: You treat me in the same manner. The seasons change; and both of us lose our harvests for want of mutual confidence and security.  ---David Hume
  20. 20. Promotion of social capital  1. On individual level  2. On local community  3. On national level
  21. 21. References  Putnam, Robert. (2000), "Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community" (Simon and Schuster  Portes, A. (1998). Social Capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1-24.  Coleman, James. (1988). "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital." American Journal of Sociology Supplement 94: S95-S120. Wellman, Barry and Scot Wortley. (1990)."Different Strokes from Different Folks: Community Ties and Social Support." American Journal of Sociology 96: 558-88. Loury, Glenn (1977). A Dynamic Theory of Racial Income Differences. Chapter 8 of Women, Minorities, and Employment Discrimination, Ed. P.A. Wallace and A. Le Mund. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
  22. 22. Links  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_capital  TW&sl=en&u=http://www.scribd.com/doc/370 3854/Social-Capital-And-Civil-Society&prev=/ search%3Fq%3Dsocial%2Bcapital%2Btheory %26hl%3Dzh- TW&rurl=translate.google.com.hk&usg=ALkJr hgdTfUBjuOmJQoxe5GReWBGCk61-g