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  1. 1. Agriculture Chapters 6 & 7 <ul><li>Agriculture As a primary source </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs, processes and outputs of agriculture-an agriculture system </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Wet rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>High technology farming </li></ul>
  2. 2. Agriculture as a primary activity <ul><li>Primary secondary tertiary </li></ul><ul><li>Mining logging manufacturing processing services F&B </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farming: Majority or all of the outputs are consumed within a family </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial farming: Majority or all of the outputs are sold in the market. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Inputs, processes and outputs of Agriculture- an agriculture system <ul><li>PHYSICAL INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-Rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>-sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>-relief flat and fertile land) </li></ul><ul><li>-soil </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>-capital </li></ul><ul><li>-Farming tools </li></ul><ul><li>-seeds </li></ul><ul><li>-labour </li></ul><ul><li>-pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>-herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Ploughing </li></ul><ul><li>Sowing </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizing </li></ul><ul><li>harvesting </li></ul>OUTPUTS Cash earned from the sale of farm produce
  4. 4. Shifting cultivation <ul><li>Also know as the “slash and burn farming” </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest is cleared and burned </li></ul><ul><li>Burned area of land are used to plant crops E.g. rice, maize and tapioca </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers abandon the land when the soil fertility is diminished </li></ul><ul><li>It is practiced by tribes in the hilly areas of tropical rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>They can be found in: </li></ul><ul><li>- Amazon Basin of South America </li></ul><ul><li>- the Congo Basin of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>- the islands and hilly regions of South East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>- Papua New Guinea </li></ul>
  5. 5. The cycle of shifting cultivation (a) When a site is selected, The farmers cut down the trees (b) The farmers burn the woods and weeds to make a small clearing. The ash left on the land is used as a fertilizer (c) Simple tools are used to prepare the land for cultivation. (D) After 3 to 4 years, the soil diminishes in fertility
  6. 6. Kantu tribe <ul><li>Lived in the river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Built longhouses </li></ul><ul><li>1. Headman of the Kantu tribe selects site for household </li></ul><ul><li>2. Begin the stage of slashing or burning of the forests [ ashes behind is fertilizers] </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grow mainly dry or hill rice and other many other varieties of rice </li></ul><ul><li>-root crops -long bean </li></ul><ul><li>- banana -pumpkin </li></ul><ul><li>-maize -cucumber </li></ul><ul><li>-kunyit—medicine </li></ul><ul><li>-tobacco—smoking and poison against crop pests </li></ul><ul><li>-serai– attract the rice spirit </li></ul><ul><li>4. 3-4 years later, soil loose fertility and the Kantus will move to another new plot to repeat the process </li></ul><ul><li>Limited damage to the forest ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of over-exploitation be various groups [ loggers, plantation companies] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Wet Rice Cultivation <ul><li>Practiced in tropical regions </li></ul><ul><li>South asia </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast asia </li></ul><ul><li>South china </li></ul><ul><li>Growing of padi on flooded fields in the lowlands of hot and wet regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>sowing seeds </li></ul><ul><li>nursing seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Thrashing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Physical and human inputs of wet rice cultivation <ul><li>Physical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>flat land </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy rainfall </li></ul>Human inputs - Buffaloes used for Ploughing - Animal manure - Chemical fertilizers <ul><li>Rice cultivation in Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Udon thani had been selected for its favorable area </li></ul><ul><li>Located at the boundary of Thailand and Laos </li></ul><ul><li>no irrigation nor use of fertilizers and pesticides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Plantation Agriculture <ul><li>It is found in countries or areas within the tropics that experience : </li></ul><ul><li>-high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>-high humidity </li></ul><ul><li>-heavy rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of countries: </li></ul><ul><li>-Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>-Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>-Sri Lanka in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>-Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>-Colombia in South America </li></ul>
  10. 10. Plantation Agriculture <ul><li>Crop is grown and sold for cash </li></ul><ul><li>Usually 40 hectares large </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of cash crops: </li></ul><ul><li>-rubber </li></ul><ul><li>-cacao </li></ul><ul><li>-oil palm </li></ul><ul><li>-coconut </li></ul><ul><li>-pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>-banana </li></ul><ul><li>-tea </li></ul><ul><li>-coffee </li></ul><ul><li>-sugar cane </li></ul>
  11. 11. Inputs, processes and outputs <ul><li>PHYSICAL INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-climatic conditions suitable for crops </li></ul><ul><li>-large areas of arable land </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>- cheap plantation workers </li></ul><ul><li>-labour with management skills </li></ul><ul><li>-high capital </li></ul><ul><li>-modern and efficient machinery </li></ul><ul><li>-processing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>-fertilizers and pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>-efficient transport infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>0research and development </li></ul>PROCESSES Cultivating and processing of crops OUTPUTS Semi-processed products PROFIT (PART OF PROFIT)
  12. 12. Plantation in Peninsular Malaysia <ul><li>It is the most important agriculture type </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsular Malaysia extends from 1.5degreesN to 7degreesN. </li></ul><ul><li>The hot and wet conditions together with its diverse relief and its colonial background, favor the development of plantation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>It had continued to flourish and remains as the country’s dominant agriculture activity. </li></ul><ul><li>It is found on the foothills and coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of plantation crops in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia earned RM28.6 billion from oil palm in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil palm and rubber are the most important. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oil palm <ul><li>In 1971, Malaysia replaced Nigeria as the world’s largest producer of oil palm. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes of oil palm: cultivation and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation begins at the pre-nursery with selection of good oil palm seeds: </li></ul><ul><li>- soak in water for seven days with daily change of water </li></ul><ul><li>- put into plastic bags and kept in germinators for about 80 days </li></ul><ul><li> - placed in pre-nursery for 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>- young plants are transplanted to the nursery for a year </li></ul><ul><li>- transportation young palms to the field during the early part of the rainy season </li></ul>
  14. 14. High-technology farming <ul><li>It is the use of modern technology including machinery, robots, computers and even satellites in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Enable farmers to maximize profits and minimize costs of production </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied to agriculture of different types and different scales </li></ul>
  15. 15. Agro-chemicals <ul><li>Chemical fertilizers are used to increase farm output per unit of land. </li></ul><ul><li>However, chemical fertilizers have negative effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides kill pests </li></ul><ul><li>Weedicides prevent the growth of unwanted plants, leaving more nutrients for the plant </li></ul>
  16. 16. Irrigation <ul><li>Crops may die if there is insufficient water during a dry season </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity will be raised: if irrigation is provided for second harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Modern sprinklers are designed to apply the right amounts of water to the crops </li></ul><ul><li>This method prevents over-irrigation which depletes water and leads to soil leeching when soil nutrients are washed away into the ground water </li></ul>
  17. 17. Farm machinery <ul><li>Raise the efficiency of various farming processes </li></ul><ul><li>Solve the problem of labour shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Machines replace human labour In farming processes such as ploughing, sowing and harvesting of crops, even for milking of cows </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks used to send he meat or milk to markets are refrigerated to keep the product fresh. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Greater care for poultry and livestock <ul><li>Computers are used to calculate the right amounts of nutrients that the poultry requires to grow quickly and healthily. </li></ul><ul><li>This raises production and results in quality meat, milk and eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Farm animals are vaccinated to prevent disease </li></ul>
  19. 19. Improved breeds and seeds <ul><li>Advancements in biotechnology results in healthier breeds of poultry, livestock and crop </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: hens and ducks lay more egg, sheep produces good quality wool </li></ul><ul><li>Many DCs now utilize technology to increase farm productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouses trap heat from sunlight through the glass roofs and walls to help the crop grow </li></ul>
  20. 20. High-technology farming in Singapore <ul><li>High technology farming is essential for small country like singapore as most land are devoted to urban development. </li></ul><ul><li>With scarcity of land, singapore farmers cannot meet with the local demand for food </li></ul><ul><li>It is risky to rely solely on imports to meet local demand for food as it makes singapore vulnerable to sudden price increases in food imports or a sudden reduction in supply </li></ul>
  21. 21. Characteristic of high technology farming in singapore <ul><li>The cost of each high-technology farm can vary between $60 000 to $15 million, depending on the size and types practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the capital is invested in machines, technology and research and development to improve the quality and quantity of the output </li></ul><ul><li>A highly specialized labour force is needed to keep up with research and development of the output </li></ul><ul><li>The high technology farms need to employ laboratory technicians to engage in Research and development to maintain the quality of the products and their competitiveness in the market </li></ul>
  22. 22. Inputs, processes and outputs <ul><li>PHYSICAL INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-sunlight/shade </li></ul><ul><li>-land </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN INPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-capital in the range of a few million dollars </li></ul><ul><li>-seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>-nutrient solution </li></ul><ul><li>-inorganic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>-specialized equipment: computers </li></ul><ul><li>-Laboratory technicians </li></ul><ul><li>-technology </li></ul><ul><li>-rent for farm </li></ul><ul><li>-research and development </li></ul>PROCESSES -Germinating seeds in a dark room -transplanting to growing trough -adding nutrient solution to growing troughs using computers (hydroponics) -spraying nutrient solution to roots (aeroponics) -monitoring plant growth using computers -harvesting (manually) -packaging and refrigerated transport <ul><li>OUTPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>-local leafy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>(bayam, caixin and kang kong) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate and subtropical vegetables, such as butterhead lettuce and Hong Kong kai lan </li></ul><ul><li>- Dwarf cabbage </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>DONE BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Agnes (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rachel lee (13) </li></ul><ul><li>Jingyi (20) </li></ul><ul><li>JJ (30) </li></ul><ul><li>203 </li></ul>