Fossil fuels ppw

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Fossil fuels ppw

  1. 1. Fossil Fuels Monika Isaac
  2. 2. What are fossil fuels? <ul><li>Natural resources, such as coal, oil and natural gas, containing hydrocarbons. These fuels are formed in the Earth over millions of years and produce carbon dioxide when burnt </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of fossil fuels <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>petroleum and its fractions and natural gas/gases </li></ul><ul><li>diesel </li></ul>
  4. 4. How is coal formed? <ul><li>Coal was formed as massive amounts of vegetation died and fell into the swamp-like surfaces that existed in the heavily vegetated Earth of the Carboniferous Period. Huge mats of waterlogged plant material were formed that resisted decay. Over millions of years, as the climatic and geologic conditions changed, these plant sediments were covered and compacted by other sediments, resulting in their lithification. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Different stages of coal formation <ul><li>Peat – Stage One </li></ul><ul><li>Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. Normally, vegetable matter is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide. However, if plant material accumulates underwater, oxygen is not present and so only partial decomposition occurs. This incomplete destruction leads to the accumulation of an organic substance called peat. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Different stages of coal formation <ul><ul><li>Lignite – Stage Two </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lignite, the second stage, is formed when peat is subjected to increased vertical pressure from accumulating sediments. Lignite is dark brown in colour and, like peat, contains traces of plants. It is found in many places but is used only when more efficient fuel is not available. It crumbles easily and should not be shipped or handled before use. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Different stages of coal formation <ul><ul><li>Bituminous Coal – Stage Three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bituminous Coal is the third stage. Added pressure has made it compact and virtually all traces of plant life have disappeared. Also known as &quot;soft coal”, bituminous coal is the type found in Cape Breton and is our most abundant fuel. It is greatly used in industry as a source of heat energy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Different stages of coal formation <ul><li>Anthracite – Stage Four </li></ul><ul><li>Anthracite, the fourth stage in coal formation, is also known as &quot;hard coal&quot; because it is hard and has a high luster. It appears to have been formed as a result of combined pressure and high temperature. Anthracite burns with a short flame and little smoke. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How is coal used as a fossil fuel? <ul><li>Coal are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. Additionally, it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide emissions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How is oil formed? <ul><li>Oil and Natural gases have formed from the remains of plants and sea creatures. they are the result of the action of heat and pressure on plant and animal remains over millions of years, in the absence of air. The crude oil we use today was formed millions of years ago but crude oil is still being formed today. More crude oil is formed every time an animal or plant in the sea dies and is squashed by layers of other dead marine life (that turns into rock) over the top. This takes a long time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How is oil used as a fossil fuel? <ul><li>In North America, Native Americans used blankets to skim oil off the surface of streams and lakes. They used oil as medicine and to make canoes water-proof. </li></ul><ul><li>We use them to fuel our airplanes, cars, and trucks, to heat our homes, and to make products like medicines and plastics. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How is natural gas formed? <ul><li>The main ingredient in natural gas is methane, a gas (or compound) composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is made up of a combination of gases, which consists largely of methane (CH4) with lesser amounts of ethane, propane and butane as well as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and traces of some other gases. The individual proportions of each of the components can vary based on where the natural gas has been located. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How is natural gas used as a fossil fuel? <ul><li>Natural gas is used to produce steel, glass, paper, clothing, brick, electricity and as an essential raw material for many common products. Some products that use natural gas as a raw material are: paints, fertilizer, plastics, antifreeze, dyes, photographic film, medicines, and explosives. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are refineries and why are they important to the production of fossil fuels? <ul><li>A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. Just as a paper mill turns lumber into paper, a refinery takes crude oil and turns it into gasoline and many other useful petroleum products. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill <ul><li>On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound, rupturing its hull and spilling nearly 11 million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into a remote, scenic, and biologically productive body of water. It was the largest single oil spill in U.S. coastal waters. In the weeks and months that followed, the oil spread over a wide area in Prince William Sound and beyond, resulting in an unprecedented response and cleanup. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Deepwater Horizon <ul><li>Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, a massive oil spill continues to threaten the ecology and economy of the U.S. Gulf Coast. The ever-growing oil slick now measures approximately 130 miles by 70 miles – about the size of the state of Delaware. Four states – Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida – are under threat from the spill. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Reuters, BP, has reported some progress slowing the flow of oil from the leaking well. Crews in Louisiana have finished building the first of three massive steel and concrete containment domes the company plans to lower in place over one of the three leaks on the ocean floor. BP expects to load the dome aboard a ship tomorrow for transport to the site. </li></ul>

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