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Technology in Action
Technology in Action <ul><li>Chapter 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the Scenes:  Databases and Information Systems </li></ul>
Chapter Topics <ul><li>Files and their uses </li></ul><ul><li>Databases and their uses </li></ul><ul><li>Database componen...
Conventional Files Figure 7-3
Pros and Cons of Conventional Files <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to design because of their single-application focu...
Files and Tables <ul><li>File  – the set of all occurrences of a given record structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Table  – the re...
Databases  <ul><li>Electronic collections of related data </li></ul><ul><li>Help us organize data </li></ul><ul><li>Turn d...
Advantages of Using Databases <ul><li>Store and retrieve large quantities of information </li></ul><ul><li>Enable informat...
Disadvantages of Using Databases <ul><li>More complex than file technology </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat slower performance <...
Database Terminology <ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Category of information displayed in columns </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Database Terminology <ul><li>Data types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Database Terminology <ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of related fields </li></ul></ul>Record
Database Terminology <ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of related records </li></ul></ul>Table
Database Terminology <ul><li>Primary key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A field value unique to a record </li></ul></ul>Primary Key
Database Types <ul><li>Relational databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize data in a table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link...
Database Management Systems (DBMS) <ul><li>Application software designed to capture and analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Fou...
Data Architecture <ul><li>Data architecture  – a definition of how: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files and databases are to be de...
Typical DBMS Architecture
1. Creating Databases and  Entering Data <ul><li>Create field names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify each type of data </li...
Sample Data Dictionary Report Figure 7-5
Creating Databases and  Entering Data (cont) <ul><li>Create individual records: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key-in </li></ul></u...
Data Validation <ul><li>Validation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of ensuring data entered into the database is correct (o...
2. Viewing and Sorting Data <ul><li>Browse through records </li></ul><ul><li>Sort records by field name </li></ul>Before s...
3. Extracting or Querying Data <ul><li>Query  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A question or inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provi...
4. Outputting Data <ul><li>Reports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary data reports </li></u...
Relational Database Operations <ul><li>Relational databases organize data into tables based on logical groupings </li></ul...
The Relational Data Model Figure 7-6
A Modern Data Architecture
Administrators <ul><li>Data administrator  – a database specialist responsible for data planning, definition, architecture...
From Logical Data Model …
…  To Physical Data Model (Relational Schema)
Data Storage <ul><li>Data warehouses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large scale repository of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Org...
<ul><li>Source data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal  sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company databases, etc. </li></...
<ul><li>Data staging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract data from source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformat the data </li></ul...
<ul><li>Small slices of data </li></ul><ul><li>Data of a single department </li></ul>Data Marts
Data Warehouse
Managing Data:  Information Systems <ul><li>Information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software-based solutions used to gat...
Information Systems Categories <ul><li>Office support </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction processing </li></ul><ul><li>Managemen...
Office Support Systems (OSS) <ul><li>Assist employees in day-to-day tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communications </li></...
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) <ul><li>Keeps track of everyday business activities </li></ul><ul><li>Batch processin...
Management Information Systems (MIS) <ul><li>Provides timely and accurate information for managers to make business decisi...
Decision Support Systems (DSS) <ul><li>Help managers develop solutions for specific problems </li></ul>
Data Mining <ul><li>Process by which data are analyzed and investigated </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is to spot patterns or...
Data Mining Methods <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define data classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimation </l...
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is a database and why is it beneficial to use databases? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What components make up a database? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What types of databases are there? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What do database management systems do? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>How do relational databases organize and manipulate data? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What are data warehouses and data marts and how are they used? </li></ul>
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is an information system and what types of information systems are used in busin...
Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is data mining and how does it work? </li></ul>
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Behind The Scenes Databases And Information Systems 6

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Behind The Scenes Databases And Information Systems 6

  1. 1. Technology in Action
  2. 2. Technology in Action <ul><li>Chapter 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the Scenes: Databases and Information Systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Topics <ul><li>Files and their uses </li></ul><ul><li>Databases and their uses </li></ul><ul><li>Database components </li></ul><ul><li>Types of databases </li></ul><ul><li>Database management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses and data marts </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conventional Files Figure 7-3
  5. 5. Pros and Cons of Conventional Files <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to design because of their single-application focus </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent performance due to optimized organization for a single application </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Harder to adapt to sharing across applications </li></ul><ul><li>Harder to adapt to new requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Need to duplicate attributes in several files. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Files and Tables <ul><li>File – the set of all occurrences of a given record structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Table – the relational database equivalent of a file. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of conventional files and tables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master files – Records relatively permanent though values may change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction files – Records describe business events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document files – Historical data for review without overhead of regenerating document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival files – Master and transaction records that have been deleted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table lookup files – Relatively static data that can be shared to maintain consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit files – Special records of updates to other files </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Databases <ul><li>Electronic collections of related data </li></ul><ul><li>Help us organize data </li></ul><ul><li>Turn data into information </li></ul>
  8. 8. Advantages of Using Databases <ul><li>Store and retrieve large quantities of information </li></ul><ul><li>Enable information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Provide data centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Promote data integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for flexible use of data </li></ul>Student housing Financial Aid Recording grades Student Registration Parents Student Information Database
  9. 9. Disadvantages of Using Databases <ul><li>More complex than file technology </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat slower performance </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in DBMS and database experts </li></ul><ul><li>Need to adhere to design principles to realize benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vulnerability due to consolidating data in a centralized database </li></ul>
  10. 10. Database Terminology <ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Category of information displayed in columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each field has a field name </li></ul></ul>Field Name
  11. 11. Database Terminology <ul><li>Data types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlink </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Database Terminology <ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of related fields </li></ul></ul>Record
  13. 13. Database Terminology <ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of related records </li></ul></ul>Table
  14. 14. Database Terminology <ul><li>Primary key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A field value unique to a record </li></ul></ul>Primary Key
  15. 15. Database Types <ul><li>Relational databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize data in a table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link tables to each other through their primary keys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object-oriented databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data in objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles unstructured data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data in multiple dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can easily be customized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process data much faster </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Database Management Systems (DBMS) <ul><li>Application software designed to capture and analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Four main operations of a DBMS are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating databases and entering data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing and sorting data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputting data </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Data Architecture <ul><li>Data architecture – a definition of how: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files and databases are to be developed and used to store data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The file and/or database technology to be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The administrative structure set up to manage the data resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data is stored in some combination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational databases – databases that support day-to-day operations and transactions for an information system. Also called transactional databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses – databases that store data extracted from operational databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To support data mining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work group databases </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Typical DBMS Architecture
  19. 19. 1. Creating Databases and Entering Data <ul><li>Create field names: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify each type of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data dictionary </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Sample Data Dictionary Report Figure 7-5
  21. 21. Creating Databases and Entering Data (cont) <ul><li>Create individual records: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Import </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Data Validation <ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of ensuring data entered into the database is correct (or at least reasonable) and complete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetic/numeric checks </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Viewing and Sorting Data <ul><li>Browse through records </li></ul><ul><li>Sort records by field name </li></ul>Before sort After sort
  24. 24. 3. Extracting or Querying Data <ul><li>Query </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A question or inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides records based on criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured query language (SQL) </li></ul></ul>SQL
  25. 25. 4. Outputting Data <ul><li>Reports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary data reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Export data </li></ul>
  26. 26. Relational Database Operations <ul><li>Relational databases organize data into tables based on logical groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships are links between tables with related data </li></ul><ul><li>Common fields between tables need to exist </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization of data (recording data once) reduces data redundancy </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Relational Data Model Figure 7-6
  28. 28. A Modern Data Architecture
  29. 29. Administrators <ul><li>Data administrator – a database specialist responsible for data planning, definition, architecture, and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Database administrator – a specialist responsible for database technology, database design,construction, security, backup and recovery, and performance tuning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A database administrator will administer one or more databases </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. From Logical Data Model …
  31. 31. … To Physical Data Model (Relational Schema)
  32. 32. Data Storage <ul><li>Data warehouses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large scale repository of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes all the data related to an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is organized by subject </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Source data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company databases, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers, vendors, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers or Web site visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clickstream data </li></ul></ul></ul>Populating Data Warehouses
  34. 34. <ul><li>Data staging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract data from source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformat the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store the data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software programs/procedures created to extract the data and to reformat it for storage </li></ul>Data Staging
  35. 35. <ul><li>Small slices of data </li></ul><ul><li>Data of a single department </li></ul>Data Marts
  36. 36. Data Warehouse
  37. 37. Managing Data: Information Systems <ul><li>Information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software-based solutions used to gather and analyze information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions performed by information systems include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing data into information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing output options </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Information Systems Categories <ul><li>Office support </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction processing </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support </li></ul>
  39. 39. Office Support Systems (OSS) <ul><li>Assist employees in day-to-day tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communications </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office </li></ul>
  40. 40. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) <ul><li>Keeps track of everyday business activities </li></ul><ul><li>Batch processing </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time processing </li></ul>
  41. 41. Management Information Systems (MIS) <ul><li>Provides timely and accurate information for managers to make business decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Detail report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions that occur during a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidate detailed data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exception report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show unusual conditions </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Decision Support Systems (DSS) <ul><li>Help managers develop solutions for specific problems </li></ul>
  43. 43. Data Mining <ul><li>Process by which data are analyzed and investigated </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is to spot patterns or trends within the data </li></ul>
  44. 44. Data Mining Methods <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define data classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign a value to data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affinity grouping or association rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine which data goes together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize data into subgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Description and visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a clear picture of what is happening </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is a database and why is it beneficial to use databases? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What components make up a database? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What types of databases are there? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What do database management systems do? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>How do relational databases organize and manipulate data? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What are data warehouses and data marts and how are they used? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is an information system and what types of information systems are used in business? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Chapter 11 Summary Questions <ul><li>What is data mining and how does it work? </li></ul>

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  • HarshYadav17

    Aug. 6, 2013
  • nielgraceful12

    Apr. 12, 2018

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