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Binghamton Research


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Binghamton Research features insights and innovations from faculty members at Binghamton University. This year's theme is Earth on Our Minds, and it focuses on sustainability across numerous disciplines.

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Binghamton Research

  1. 1. Binghamton ReseaRch Binghamton University / State University of New York / 2010 Earth on our minds A surprising way to curb teen pregnancy 26 • An Rx for what ails alliances 54 • Is climate change making us sick? 74
  2. 2. 44 Diving into the data Computer scientists empower citizen scientists
  3. 3. Binghamton ReseaRch Binghamton University / State University of New York / 2010 c o N t eN t S 2 38 62 about Binghamton Research cool model for a hot planet Probing public policy Economist explores how New ideas about networks 3 international cooperation may reveal why programs can mitigate climate change succeed or fail messages 4 44 74 honors for early-career Diving into the data is climate change scientists and engineers Computer scientists empower making us sick? citizen scientists The answer is yes, and a geographically based approach 18 50 can help fight diseases such as clinic sets course for a cure malaria and swine flu origins of the culture wars Psychologist aims to eliminate Dispute over evolution in the social anxiety disorder, OCD 1920s paved the way for 78 ongoing debate Bookshelf 22 a revolutionary idea 58 79 Historian’s new book breathes historian revisits a in Brief life into debates of 1790s battlefield of cold War medicine 80 26 Gerald Kutcher walked away impact Well connected from a career in cancer care Nurse finds that girls are less to delve into military experiments, likely to be teen moms if their nuclear threats and informed parents get involved in the consent community f eat U r eS 12 30 54 66 Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 On the fly Earth on our minds An Rx for what Cultivating the Biologist’s work may lead Cover Story: Innovations ails alliances next generation to ways of controlling in sustainability could save Partnerships built on of innovators insects that spread money, reduce greenhouse innovation lead to better In labs and far beyond, disease or harm crops gases, boost national results for drug companies graduate students are vital security and protect our to campus ecosystem water supply from pollutants 1
  4. 4. ABOuT BINGHAmTON REsEARCH Editorial Staff New York State Center of Excellence Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center (S3IP) editor Director Bahgat Sammakia Rachel Coker Organized Research Centers art Direction and Design Center for Advanced Information Technologies (CAIT) Martha P. Terry Director Victor Skormin Photography Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing (CAMM) Jonathan Cohen, iStock Images, Paul Shulins Director Peter Borgesen Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Systems (CASE) contributing Writers Director Omowunmi Sadik Eric Coker, Rachel Coker, Merrill Douglas, Karen Hoffmann, Center for Applied Community Research and Development (CACRD) Florence M. Margai, Todd R. McAdam, Kathleen Ryan O’Connor Director Pamela Mischen copy editing Center for Autonomous Solar Power (CASP) Diana Bean, Katie Ellis, John Wojcio Director Seshu Desu Center for Cognitive and Psycholinguistic Sciences (CaPS) Illustrations Director Cynthia Connine iStock Images Center for Development and Behavioral Neuroscience (CDBN) Director Norman Spear Binghamton University Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender (CHSWG) Co-Directors Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin Lois B. Defleur Center for Integrated Watershed Studies (CIWS) President Director Weixing Zhu Gerald Sonnenfeld Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Philosophy, Interpretation, and Culture (CPIC) Vice President for Research Director Maria Lugones Center for Leadership Studies (CLS) Marcia r. craner Director Francis Yammarino Vice President for External Affairs Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies (CEMERS) Director Karen-edis Barzman Center for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education (CSMTE) Binghamton Research is published annually by Director Thomas O’Brien the Division of Research, with cooperation from the office of University communications and Center for the Teaching of American History (CTAH) Director Thomas Dublin marketing. Center for Writers (CW) PostmasteR: send address changes to: Director Maria Mazziotti Gillan Binghamton Research, office of Research Clinical Science and Engineering Research Center (CSERC) advancement, Po Box 6000, Binghamton, new York Director Kenneth McLeod 13902-6000. Institute for Materials Research (IMR) Binghamton University is strongly committed to Director M. Stanley Whittingham affirmative action. We offer access to services and Institute of Biomedical Technology (IBT) recruit students and employees without regard to race, Director John G. Baust color, gender, religion, age, disability, marital status, Integrated Electronics Engineering Center (IEEC) sexual orientation or national origin. Director Bahgat Sammakia Linux Technology Center (LTC) Director Merwyn Jones Public Archaeology Facility (PAF) Director Nina Versaggi Roger L. Kresge Center for Nursing Research (KCNR) Interim Director Ann Myers Institutes for Advanced Studies Printed on paper that contains 50 percent recycled Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, content with 25 percent post-consumer waste. and Civilizations (FBC) Director Richard E. Lee Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities (IASH) Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 Printed at a facility that is 100 percent wind powered. Director Bat-Ami Bar On Institute for Asia and Asian Diasporas (IAADS) Director John Chaffee Institute for Evolutionary Studies (EvoS) Director David Sloan Wilson Institute of Global Cultural Studies (IGCS) Director Ali Mazrui Institute for Intergenerational Studies (IIS) Director Laura Bronstein Watson Institute for Systems Excellence (WISE) Director K. Hari Srihari 2
  5. 5. mEssAGEs From the president From the vice president for research Binghamton University has made a com- the economy of the future will be fueled mitment to leverage its academic excellence, by environmentally sound practices — and global awareness and green initiatives “green” jobs — in numerous disciplines. to benefit new York state and the nation Binghamton University researchers are through its advanced research and eco- expanding the possibilities for this new nomic development partnerships. these and era of sustainability with innovations in other initiatives are part of our larger Think solar energy, batteries, fuel cells, electronics Green. Think Global. Think Binghamton packaging technologies, environmental advocacy efforts. sensors and power-aware computing. multidisciplinary collaborations and green has long been more than just a partnerships with industry are helping to school color at Binghamton. it’s also a key ensure that ideas developed on our campus philosophy in much of our research and in have an impact far beyond new York. campus activities in and out of classrooms. We are proud that we are listed on the our graduate students also carry this Princeton Review’s “green honor roll” and pioneering and collaborative spirit into also one of the sierra club’s “cool schools.” the next chapters of their lives, whether our faculty members’ voices are heard in in industry or in academic pursuits. these some of the world’s most vital conversations, outstanding scholars are making their including the ongoing negotiations about mark in fields ranging from history to climate change. economist Zili Yang was materials science. their presence creates among just 21 experts worldwide invited by new possibilities for Binghamton researchers the copenhagen consensus center to help while enriching our vibrant intellectual examine the costs and benefits of different community. solutions to global warming. Binghamton’s creativity and innovation Binghamton’s commitment to discovery are also evident in our continued research is also visible in the accolades our faculty growth and in the expansion of our efforts members received during the past year. in technology transfer. in this issue of scott craver, an expert in cryptography, is Binghamton Research, you’ll learn more one of 100 young researchers who received about what we can achieve when we have a Presidential early career award for sci- earth on our minds. entists and engineers. it’s the highest honor bestowed by the United states government Gerald Sonnenfeld on young professionals in the early stages Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 of their research careers. the University is also proud to have three faculty members chosen for national science Foundation Faculty early career Development (caReeR) awards. their research stands to advance technologies ranging from smart sensors to cloud computing. Lois B. DeFleur 3
  6. 6. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 PRESIDENtIAL EARLY CAREER AwARD FOR SCIENtIStS AND ENGINEERS 4
  7. 7. at work on the next frontier of security scott Craver’s research could help stop a terrorist attack — or lend privacy to people living under an authoritarian regime. information security expert scott craver’s core research interest is in digital watermarks, which can be used to provide proof of ownership, as copy protection devices or to send covert messages. Watermarks are commonly used in movies, music and images; they could also be used to protect scientific data, software and other types of information. craver and his team of students develop algorithms to break watermark systems. “We need to think like an attacker in order to be certain of what types of attacks are available,” he said. “the attacks we come up with aren’t useful tools for a criminal. that’s part of the point in finding attacks on security systems: if you find an attack, you’re preventing it from being useful to an adversary because now people know how to protect against it.” Last year, craver was among 100 recipients of the prestigious Presidential early career award for scientists and engineers (Pecase). the award includes a grant of $200,000 a year for five years. craver said the funding will allow his team to continue to pursue a unified theory of detection. “all of our hard security problems these days are really detection problems,” he said.“this is the last frontier, or at least the next one. these problems have applications to all possible adversaries. You’re talking about anything from kids who want to make trouble to organized crime.” craver earned his doctorate in electrical engineering from Princeton University in 2004 and came to Binghamton that year as an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering. he is the first Binghamton researcher to receive a Pecase since the program began in 1996. “the person who is trying to evade detection is not necessarily the bad guy,”craver noted. “if alice and Bob are trying to communicate secretly and a third party is trying to catch them, who’s the bad guy? it depends. if the person doing the detection is in law enforcement and trying to Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 uncover a terrorist plot, that’s one possibility. if alice and Bob live in a country where the internet is highly censored and they’re just trying to communicate with a normal level of privacy, the person doing the detection is not necessarily the good guy. “We’re not trying to figure out how to score a win for one side or the other, but to find out in these sorts of situations who will win.” 5
  8. 8. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 6 NAtIONAL SCIENCE FOuNDAtION CAREER AwARD
  9. 9. algorithms harness power of cloud computing Kartik Gopalan’s research enables companies to capitalize on cloud computing, resulting in lower costs for businesses and revolutionizing everyday tasks such as shopping and browsing the Web. Kartik gopalan’s work focuses on “virtualization” in cloud computing, large clusters of computers used by organizations of all sizes. Virtualization allows a single computer to do the work of multiple machines. it also allows information technology managers to pool the resources of multiple computers on a network to perform large or complex tasks. “Virtualization helps people use their hardware resources more efficiently,” he said. “You can consolidate multiple services on a single machine. You have less hardware, it costs you less, it uses less power and it gives you a better return on investment.” the technique is already commonly used. however, it managers don’t have good tools to manage the hundreds or thousands of virtual machines that could be running in a cluster. gopalan’s team develops algorithms that can be used under different circumstances, whether running a Web server or a database server or providing some other service. gopalan, an assistant professor of computer science at Binghamton since 2006, received a nearly $400,000 grant from the national science Foundation’s Faculty early career Development (caReeR) Program to support his research. the work, including an algorithm that helps large-memory applications run efficiently on a network, has already generated commercial interest. if cloud computing seems difficult to understand, consider what happens when you run an “app” from an iPhone. “Where are these applications actually running? they are often running in the back end, in a cluster or a data center,” gopalan said. “and the it manager needs the right tools to satisfy the user’s performance requirement while minimizing cost. these are two conflicting Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 requirements. i develop algorithms to try to bridge that gap.” 7
  10. 10. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 8 NAtIONAL SCIENCE FOuNDAtION CAREER AwARD
  11. 11. Research may deliver ‘greener’ computers Qinru Qiu aims to reduce the power demands of microprocessors while maintaining performance. Her work could lead to smaller, more reliable computers that require less energy. step into Qinru Qiu’s lab at Binghamton University and you’ll see what appears to be a teenager’s fantasy: Rack after rack of sleek, black Playstation 3 game systems. and while she’s quick to explain that the Ps3s are set up to emulate a multiprocessor, not for an epic showdown in Resident evil, Qiu’s work may one day fuel new adolescent dreams. her work on low- power computing could lead to smaller computers that function more efficiently and use less power. the work holds such promise that Qiu received a five-year grant of more than $400,000 from the national science Foundation’s most prestigious program for young faculty. Qiu’s project focuses on reducing the power demands of multiprocessor system-on-chip designs, which are becoming more popular. a single processor can be very fast, but as its performance improves it requires more and more power. a multiprocessor, on the other hand, can deliver the same performance as numerous single processors at much lower power. Benefits of cutting power demands include reduced energy consumption and manufacturing costs. Low-power designs can also improve reliability, since high power consumption increases the temperature of a chip, which harms its reliability. Qiu, an assistant professor in the Department of electrical and computer engineering at Binghamton since 2003, said microprocessors are designed to deliver peak performance, even though users don’t need peak performance all the time. “the basic idea is to slow the microprocessor down or put it into low- Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 power mode when we’re not using it,” Qiu said. “Before, people just tried to minimize the power consumption of a chip when they designed it. nowadays, more and more devices have many power modes, like a hard disk has a sleep mode, so we can have more control.” 9
  12. 12. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 10 NAtIONAL SCIENCE FOuNDAtION CAREER AwARD
  13. 13. tiny devices have big potential as smart sensors mohammad Younis’ research could lead to new ways of safeguarding the environment as well as protecting electronics. mohammad Younis designs, models and characterizes miniscule micro- electro-mechanical systems, or mems, and even tinier ones called nano-electro-mechanical systems, or nems. he’s especially interested in aspects of their mechanics and motion. Younis, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Binghamton since 2004, received $440,000 through the national science Foundation’s Faculty early career Development (caReeR) Program. that project will focus on mems and their potential as smart sensors. Younis has already received a patent for a mems device that would detect acceleration and mechanical shock. the device would be able to recognize when something crashed with a high level of force. it would then perform a desirable task. applications range from protecting the hard disk of a laptop computer to deploying a side-impact air bag. he’s also working with Binghamton colleagues to develop hybrid sensors and actuators to detect gases and harmful substances in the environment based on novel electro-mechanical principles. these devices could act as electric switches upon the detection of a harmful material to inform authorities of the problem. Younis said he expects to devote at least the next decade to studying the dynamics of mems and nems. “i think with the increasing demand for sophisticated sensors and actuators, mems will remain a sought- after technology for many years to come,” he said. “also, with the emergence of applications where extreme specifications need to be met, such as having ultra-sensitive sensors and very high-frequency electronics, scaling down structures from the micro to the nano regime seems to be another avenue of significant future research.” Last year, Younis and colleagues at cornell University received a grant of more than $357,000 from the national science Foundation. that Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 initiative is designed to provide a basic understanding of the dynamic behavior of carbon nanotubes when used as devices, or in nems applications. 11
  14. 14. ON thE f ly Bio w logis ork m lEad to t’s ay of ways ing con troll ts insEc Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 rEad th at sp E or d isEas ops ha rm cr 12
  15. 15. Dozens of vials — each containing a mechanisms such that you could target one species or even a subset of that male and a female fly as well as a small population and have no impact on other species.” amount of food — are lined up for Fiumera’s lab specializes in large-scale observation. it’s 8 a.m. on the day of an experiments with the model system Drosophila melanogaster, commonly experiment in which 800 such pairings known as fruit flies. his findings are in some cases easily extended will be arranged. to non-model systems, such as the insects that are vectors for malaria an old boom box plays ZZ top’s and other diseases, which could have “sharp Dressed man” as anthony a significant impact on human health Fiumera and his students watch to see if and agriculture. the flies mate. the classic rock provides an amusing undertone in a Binghamton “the interaction between the tricks University laboratory that’s focused on males use to manipulate females Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 finding new insights into male and for the male’s best interests and the female insects’ interactions. techniques the female uses to limit that male’s ability to manipulate her Fiumera, an evolutionary biologist, be- is wonderfully exciting,” said Fiumera, lieves this experiment and others like whose work is funded by the national it will lead to techniques for reducing science Foundation. “We have good agricultural pests and bugs that spread evidence that this dynamic interaction disease. “in theory,” he said, “you could is being controlled by proteins that design very specific biological-control males are transferring to females and 13
  16. 16. “our laB’s uniquE contriBution to this fiEld is that wE’rE focusing proteins that females are producing on natural “that’s interesting,” he said, “because in their reproductive system. it sets up the fitness of a male depends on the this amazing co-evolution, almost an populations genotypes in the female population.this arms race between males and females suggests that some form of balancing of the same species.” and natural selection could be operating.” males vs. females variations to evolutionary biologists are interested to understand Fiumera’s work, it’s es- in balancing selection because it sential to know that female fruit flies idEntify thEsE appears to preserve genetic variations can mate with multiple males and that in a given population. mariana F. females have the ability to store sperm. malE and fEmalE Wolfner, professor of developmental biology and a stephen Weiss Fellow “We’re interested in trying to under- at cornell University, said biologists stand the forces that are driving these gEnEs that arE want to know why there’s so much interactions between males as they’re variation in nature, and what keeps trying to encourage a female to mate intEracting with it there. or competing to fertilize her eggs,” he said. “and, from a female’s perspective, Each othEr.” “You would think that if there were why is she choosing to re-mate and a variant in nature that’s important, whose sperm is she going to use? We’re it would just sweep through the trying to go after and identify the genes it’s an exciting time for this research, population, whether it’s fruit flies or that are involved in these interactions.” Fiumera said, in part because of the humans,” she said. “But instead of that variety of researchers attacking these we see lots of variation, and we don’t there are proteins produced by males questions: molecular biologists, behav- understand why.” that are secreted in the seminal fluid ioral ecologists, evolutionary geneticists and transferred to the female during and others. Fiumera’s focus on natural variation mating, Fiumera explained. it is only and important traits sets his work in the female where many of these looking to the future apart and may help to answer key proteins are physiologically active. his Fiumera said he recognizes that these questions about why so much variation lab has shown that polymorphisms — male-female interactions are not going is maintained, she said. natural variations — in one protein can on within a static population. males are affect female re-mating rates. some not always competing against the same some of the theories Fiumera is of these male proteins are toxic to fe- type of male or mating with the same developing about cooperation and males; they increase the fitness of the type of female. conflict may also have implications male but at a cost to the overall fitness for host-pathogen evolution, in which of his mate. other proteins influence “our lab’s unique contribution to this the genetic makeup of a disease, and such factors as female egg-laying rates field,” he said, “is that we’re focusing the population affected by it, changes and sperm storage. on natural populations and natural over time. variations to identify these male and “We have a good understanding of female genes that are interacting with other experiments Fiumera has individual roles of some of these each other.” planned will examine how wild popula- Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 proteins,” he said. “What we’re able to tions adapt to changing environmental do now is take our understanding of one ongoing project is designed to test conditions and investigate how chang- the function of these genes and put how the reproductive success of a male ing food sources affect the potential for them in the broader context of their changes when he mates with different adaptation. evolutionary potential.” it appears, females under competitive conditions. he said, that the success of a male Fiumera said he has found variations step into the laboratory depends not only on his genetic makeup in male reproductive genes that show the laid-back atmosphere in Fiumera’s but also the genes of the females with strong interactions with the genotype lab belies the quiet efficiency with whom he mates. — or genetic makeup — of the female. which his team works. 14
  17. 17. Evolutionary biologist Anthony Fiumera studies the “arms race” between male and female insects. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 15
  18. 18. A graduate student observes fruit flies during an experiment in Anthony Fiumera’s lab. glossary students scurry back and forth be- jokes about colleagues flipping to the tween the “fly room” and lab benches, last page of his papers to check out the Balancing selection: A form of carrying armloads of vials. others stare sample size. “in a full experiment,” he natural selection that preserves intently at the pairs, ready to label a vial said, “we might do 2,000 to 4,000 mat- genetic variations in a population. and move it to a waiting tray as soon as ings and score the paternity of several a mating has been confirmed. hundred thousand offspring.” Genome: All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell. after a pair mates, the male is removed Wolfner called Fiumera’s experiments from the vial. the females will have enormous. “they have a statistical Genotype: Genetic identity of an an opportunity to mate with another power much greater than they would individual. male in a few days. the second round otherwise,” she said. “You can pick up of males will also be removed and subtle effects that you wouldn’t be able Mutation: A permanent Fiumera and his team will wait for the to see in a smaller experiment. they are structural alteration in DNA. resulting progeny. heroic.” Some mutations can improve an organism’s chance of surviving that’s when the results of an experiment the sheer scope of the work means and passing the beneficial become clear: the researchers check that graduate, undergraduate and change on to descendants. the paternity of each of the young flies occasionally even high school students to determine which male succeeded can play a role. “a small army of Phenotype: Visible traits of an in producing the most offspring. they undergraduates works in the lab,” individual, such as eye color. then examine the males’ genotypes to Fiumera said. “We can involve students Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 determine if successful males share Polymorphism: A common similar polymorphisms, or genetic variation in the sequence of DNA variations. When successful males visit among individuals. share a particular polymorphism, it suggests that gene is important for Definitions provided by Anthony reproduction. Anthony Fiumera Fiumera and by the National Human talks about his Genome Research Institute. the lab specializes in large-scale ex- research. periments, to the point that Fiumera 16
  19. 19. early in meaningful science. they • The flies are easy to maintain and Wolfner said understanding Drosophila are making useful contributions; we have a short generation time. may be a vital first step in reducing the couldn’t do this work without their harmful effects of other insects. assistance.” • It’s relatively easy to set up massive experiments. “When we figure out what molecules why Drosophila melanogaster? are important in controlling fly Fiumera’s own path to evolutionary • A huge amount of background work reproduction, then we can go and biology and to working with Drosophila enhances researchers’ ability to move look for similar molecules in disease melanogaster was anything but direct. forward. vectors like mosquitoes and other he became an animal trainer at insects,” she said. “and from the fruit the columbus Zoo after studying • The species has large numbers of fly data, we’ll have a handle on how zoology as an undergraduate. that mutants, and many mutations are those molecules might work and thus led to an interest in conservation and phenotypic markers. (this means, for how we might control those insects’ conservation genetics, which in turn example, that researchers can use eye reproduction biologically. For this, it brought him to genetics and then to color to determine a fly’s paternity.) would be important to know if the Drosophila melanogaster. he joined level of variation anthony sees in fruit the Binghamton faculty in 2006 as an • There are full genome sequences for flies exists in these other insects. For a assistant professor of biology. 12 closely related species. disease like dengue fever, there is no vaccine and no cure. the only way to Fiumera said fruit flies make an ideal Drosophila biologists do band together, control it is to control its vector.” model system for numerous reasons: Fiumera said. — Rachel Coker • The species is native to and abundant “We have tools that a lot of other in the northeast, which allows systems don’t have,” he explained. researchers to study variation in “We can answer questions that can’t fly facts natural populations. be answered with other systems.” Drosophila melanogaster (aka the fruit fly) has been a favorite model system for more than a century. The flies can live in the lab for about two months; in most of Anthony Fiumera’s experiments, they live for two weeks or less. Females can reproduce when they’re 10 hours old. Flies are about a couple of millimeters long. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 17
  20. 20. CLINIC SEtS COuRSE FOR A CuRE Psychologist aims to eliminate social anxiety disorder, OCD When it comes to dealing with anxiety disorders, meredith coles has no interest in modest goals. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 18
  21. 21. “how grandiose do we want to be?” points out the difficulty patients she said when asked about her dream have in perceiving the reality around for the field. “i don’t want anyone to them. one paper by a graduate have obsessive-compulsive disorder, assistant showed that people with ever again. that’s pretty grandiose.” social anxiety disorder often focus on less emotive parts of the face, so they But coles, director of the Binghamton have problems perceiving reaction anxiety clinic and an assistant to social interaction. other research professor of psychology at Binghamton suggests a difficulty assessing the University, has mapped out an legitimacy of threats. ambitious plan that just might do aBout thE disordErs it. she envisions a combination of “We have treatment, and it works,”said focused research projects to promote coles, whose treatment focuses on People with obsessive- better outcomes and large-scale policy cognitive and behavioral methods. compulsive disorder (OCD) analysis to help set goals. her work suffer from unwanted and may lead to treatments for obsessive- But the current treatment can’t cure intrusive thoughts that they compulsive disorder (ocD) and social everyone. in fact, most patients con- can’t seem to get out of their anxiety disorder that are cheaper, more tinue to experience symptoms of the heads (obsessions), often effective and more widely available. disorders. compelling them to repeatedly perform ritualistic behaviors ocD and social anxiety disorder early diagnosis and treatment becomes and routines (compulsions) to have similar pathologies. the patient critical, coles said, because it prevents try to ease their anxiety. OCD is feels increasingly acute anxiety that’s years of suffering and impairment. and one of the 10 most debilitating alleviated either by avoiding social the longer a patient has ocD or social contact or through a ritual. a classic anxiety disorder, the more likely he is illnesses in the industrialized example of ocD is perpetual hand- to develop additional problems such as world, according to the World washing. Patients with social anxiety depression or substance abuse. Health Organization. It affects disorder often avoid situations such about 2.5 percent of the as giving speeches or interacting with this is where her latest project — a population — roughly 40 million strangers. large-scale quantitative study — takes Americans. the next step. coles received a two- a certain level of anxiety is normal and year, $400,000 grant from the national Social anxiety disorder, also perhaps even healthy. a person who institute for mental health to survey called social phobia, can fears a social faux pas may pay attention 500 people about barriers to seeking wreak havoc on the social and to avoid making one. Fearing flat treatment for anxiety disorders. romantic lives of the 15 million tires may encourage a driver to check American adults who suffer tire pressure regularly. the problem her preliminary data suggest most from the disorder, leaving is when the anxiety is associated people delay treatment because they them isolated, ashamed and, with dysfunctional behavior. and the think they can cope without help. they in some cases, misdiagnosed, difficult part of both ailments is that, can’t. others may fear real or imagined left untreated, they rarely go away on stigma for seeking psychological help. according to a survey their own. in fact, strategies people many people may not understand the commissioned by the Anxiety employ to cope with the disorders may disorder or may lack access to appropri- Disorders Association of Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 offer short-term relief but ultimately ate care. in fact, some of coles’ patients America. reinforce the anxiety: You get out of travel three hours across upstate new giving a speech, let’s say, but the next York and northern Pennsylvania to get For more information about time you have to prepare one, you’ll be to her campus clinic. these and other anxiety even more anxious. disorders, visit the Anxiety “there are so many people suffering Disorders Association coles and her staff have already and not seeking help,” coles said. of America online at looked at some of the roots of the “i want to bring that up a step. therapy disorders, including research that helps. i want people to get it.” 19
  22. 22. “there are so many people suffering and not seeking help. i want to bring that up a step. therapy helps. i want people to get it.” — Meredith Coles But psychologists lack details of how many cases begin in childhood or ado- different factors play into the delay, lescence. Yet previous research suggests and how influential each factor is. that patients will delay treatment an “the majority of people never access average of nine years after they recog- treatment for anxiety disorders,” coles nize they’re having trouble. and they said. “can they recognize something don’t recognize they’re having trouble aBout thE clinic is wrong? What do they know about for a good five years following the point anxiety disorders? Do they even know where they would receive a diagnosis. The Binghamton Anxiety Clinic what they are?” is like many psychological “the younger we educate kids, the treatment facilities at a her survey hopes to answer some of better off they’ll be,” said coles, who medical university: a complex those questions. “We’re putting a lot of serves on the scientific advisory Board of offices, meeting rooms weight on getting people to recognize of the anxiety Disorders association of and treatment areas in a the symptoms,” coles said. america. “We need to prevent mental small building in a quiet disease in kids.” corner of campus. There’s the survey might help set a course one difference: Binghamton toward reducing the effect of ocD australia already has programs in University doesn’t have a and social anxiety disorder. “it’s hard place to educate and screen children as medical school. to say what the next step is, but young as 4 for anxiety disorders. coles education is a likely first step,” said has looked into its health-care system Binghamton University was gail s. steketee, dean of the Boston to see what lessons america can learn. Meredith Coles’ target when University school of social Work.“how she was looking for a place to to get the right message across will steketee hesitates to suggest that take some thoughtful analysis of the 4-year-olds need to be targeted for set up a clinic after she earned findings. We also have to keep in mind education, but certainly younger people her doctorate from Temple that education does not always change in general must be. “it is reasonable to University in 2003. She liked public opinion when other contextual try to get education into the hands of the data-driven research focus or personal factors are at work.” parents and teachers of grade-school- she found. age children, as early intervention is Understanding what people know and most likely to be helpful and to prevent “I’m a clinical psychologist,” think about ocD and anxiety disorders worse problems,” she said. “But many Coles said, gesturing out her can help treatment at the personal and people do not develop a serious ocD office door to the complex she community levels, steketee said. “the or social anxiety problem until their runs. “Integrating science and beginning part of any good therapy is teenage years or their early 20s.” practice is important to me.” education about these psychological issues,” she said. “We can also do this the good news? they are older and The location also was rich in on a more mass-media level and it has can be more “rational” about the need people who needed help. Some been pretty successful when you con- for help. however, they are also in the of her patients drive up to three sider that the stigma of seeking help is throes of concern about what their Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 hours to seek treatment — a much less today than a generation or peers would think if they knew about range that covers communities two ago, thanks to magazines, newspa- the problem. from Philadelphia to the pers, the internet and so forth.” outskirts of metropolitan New “this and other factors delay the in particular, coles is interested in treatment-seeking process,” steketee York and to Rochester and pediatric diagnosis and education. it’s said. “education that targets this Albany, N.Y. an exercise in math: almost all cases of young adult group would be especially ocD or social anxiety can be diagnosed helpful and is most likely to occur by the time the patient is 21 years old. through the media.” 20
  23. 23. Meredith Coles, director of the Binghamton Anxiety Clinic, hopes to improve access to treatment for anxiety disorders. that brings coles full circle: back to proved to be useful in predicting ocD with anxiety disorders and public- the focused research on outcomes and symptoms later on. she and her staff policy makers. early intervention, progression of ocD and social anxiety are continuing this research with a coles said, can mean: that constitutes about 90 percent of her larger study examining multiple risk work to date. if programs can be put in factors. • Less dysfunction with the incumbent place to screen and educate children as loss of productivity young as 4, can that same mechanism But awareness is only one aspect • Less expertise needed to treat the be used to identify the predictors that behind recognizing and treating ocD disorder lead to the diagnosis? and if the cause and social anxiety disorder, steketee • Less money spent to provide that can be pinned down, can ways be said. stigma takes more time to address, treatment developed to prevent ocD and social especially because it’s a cultural factor. anxiety disorder? “slowly but surely, we are breaking at least that’s the assumption, coles this barrier down,” she said, “and said. Proving it is another question. these are big questions, and coles every famous person or person of completed a study last year to begin power who stands up and admits a “there’s always another question,” answering them. problem and how they are seeking she said. “i’m always asking another help moves this effort forward.” question.” the data supported the hypothesis that cognitions are important in the steketee said informing mental-health and coles isn’t afraid to ask the development of ocD, coles said. professionals about effective treat- grandiose one, too. “specifically, particular types of ment methods is also a challenge. beliefs such as a heightened sense “most clinicians want to do the right — Todd R. McAdam of personal responsibility to prevent thing to help their patients/clients, but Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 harm, the likelihood of threat and adopting new methods seems harder the importance of and need to than it should be,” she said. “moving control one’s thoughts were related to mental-health research into practice visit increased levels of ocD symptoms is a major goal of nearly every national over time.” mental-health professional organiza- tion and of the federal government.” Meredith Coles Further, she said, her study showed talks about her that combining those tendencies overcoming those stumbling blocks research. with a heightened self-consciousness will have major implications for people 21
  24. 24. a revolutionary ideahistorian’s nEw Book BrEathEs lifE into dEBatEs of 1790s Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 22
  25. 25. you think you know the story: American political leaders and state delegates gather in Philadelphia in May 1787 to draft a new government design following the failures of the Articles of Confederation. The convention members debate and negotiate over the summer before completing a Constitution that establishes the federal system of government and defines its three branches. The necessary nine states ratify the document by June 1788, a Bill of Rights is included, and the new government takes effect in March 1789. The basic rights of the citizenry are laid out and the ratification of the U.S. Constitution ends the Revolutionary Era. not so fast, said douglas Bradburn. in his new book, The Citizenship “the ratification of the constitu- Revolution, the associate professor of tion makes for a nice, easy end to history at Binghamton University the story of the extends the revolutionary timeline american Rev- olution,” said by emphasizing the political fights Bradburn, who joined the Binghamton faculty in 2005. “You have a break from over citizenship. the constitution did Britain, a period of warfare and then a struggle to figure out what the shape not define who was a citizen in 1789, of independence will look like. … the 1790s are left for the historians of the Bradburn said, nor did it clarify who 19th century. i find that unsatisfying. You have the same people involved. in would settle disputes between the states every revolution, you have to watch the whole arc of the political actors.” and the nation. Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 telling the story these issues would not begin to be Bradburn’s narrative arc begins in the fall of 1774, when the first resolved until the 1790s. continental congress convened. these meetings marked the transformation “the 1790s are the crucially forgotten moment to understanding the real creation of British colonial resisters into of the United states,” Bradburn said. “When you read the debates and the american revolutionaries and ensured newspapers of the 1790s, you understand quickly that there was no consensus at that political struggle would help feed that time about what the constitution meant. the citizenship issue. 23
  26. 26. as the former British subjects became lawsuits in federal court.) mobilization citizenship did not see revolutionary “we the people” by excluding indians, against the alien and sedition acts change again until the Union was re- reinstating Loyalists and leaving the included meetings, petitions, the jected by southern slave owners and issue of blacks unresolved, a new planting of “liberty poles,” newspaper collapsed during the civil War, Brad- question emerged. Who ruled america: stories and protest songs. thomas burn added. the “people” of the new nation or the Jefferson and James madison observed separate “people” in all of the states? the popular response, put politics Bradburn’s work has drawn praise in motion and drafted Virginia and from historian Peter onuf, thomas the problem of citizenship became Kentucky Resolutions that called for Jefferson Foundation professor at the entangled with the problem of the the alien and sedition acts to be University of Virginia, co-host of the growing nation-state. Bradburn found overturned. nPR show Backstory with the American answers in the decade-long battle History Guys and author and editor of between the Federalists, who sought the common citizen worked with the 11 books. to create a national, centralizing state, elite (along with immigrants) to hold and the Jeffersonian Republicans, who national politics together and form a “What in effect had been ratified in called for states to define the rights of shared idea about the constitution that state constitutions and the federal citizens. knocked Federalists from power in 1800 constitution was a potent new concep- and 1801. most important, a union of tion of citizen power,”onuf said.“What “these are two groups who had states triumphed over the nation. form it took was up for grabs and the forward-looking visions for what the subsequent debates reflected that. country should be,” Bradburn said. “the Federalists of the 1790s were “it’s really a fight over two different beaten back and failed,” Bradburn “Doug does a nice job of articulating modern states. all great revolutions said. “it was the people who wanted a both the emerging opposition view of are a contest between two competing, decentralized union, where the states the Jeffersonian Republicans and the modern visions. in the 1790s, the story were in charge of the rights of citizens Federalist position. i think it sheds new wasn’t conservatives vs. progressives or and in control of municipal regulations light on the period.” good guys vs. bad guys. it was about of their own populations. the decen- people fighting over what they thought tralized union was a compromise. the onuf called Bradburn “one of the was the meaning of the Revolution.” emphasis on locality was a way to deal smartest people writing in the (early with diversity. You didn’t have a homo- america) field today.” the Federalists, led by alexander geneous population. that was the way hamilton, demanded a unified the Union could continue and people “it’s terrific: You take 1787, blow it up, citizenry and a strong government could live together.” and ask, ‘What is the founding?’ Doug that spoke for the nation. they even gives us a new version,” onuf said. cultivated a national spirit after the the ultimate political settlement and XYZ affair, circulating petitions of the end of the american Revolution, as connections to today support for President John adams. Bradburn sees it, came with Jefferson’s although the book does not address this homogeneous vision of america presidential re-election in 1804, the current politics, Bradburn said today’s culminated in the passage of the alien passage of the 12th amendment and the political fights over rights are similar to Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 and sedition acts of 1798. electoral college and the recognition the struggles of the past. of a two-party political system. But those laws only unified an “the story of citizenship is one that has opposition that had gained momentum “You saw a transition from revolutionary dominated american history to the pres- by overturning the supreme court’s politics to one that accepted parties, an ent,” he said.“the citizenship revolution ruling in Chisholm v. Georgia. (the acceptance of the federal, decentralized — people having equal rights, being 11th amendment, which Bradburn nature of the Union and an acceptance members of a community, having a con- calls the most important pre-civil War of the racial limits of american stitution — these things were all created amendment, protected states from citizenship,” Bradburn said. out of the american Revolution.” 24
  27. 27. Bradburn points to the gay marriage debate. supporters will say it is a right, while the opposition will say it has never been a right and stress that tra- ditional marriage has been standard for centuries. a similar framework was crafted in the alien and sedition acts debates, Bradburn said. “You get the same kind of dynamic with people asserting these aggressive rights,” he said. “they are ultimately played out in politics: the ones who win the elections decide what’s a right and what isn’t a right. this revolutionary rhetoric of rights is something people continue to appeal to.” Bradburn also parallels the power of local and state governments in rejecting the alien and sedition acts with local and state groups that fought the Patriot act of the Bush administration. opponents of each made use of citizen petitions. Bradburn said he hopes people who have read books by Joseph ellis or Historian Douglas Bradburn in his latest book invites readers to rethink John Adams by David mccullough the American Revolution and debates over citizenship. will enjoy The Citizenship Revolution, which was published by University of Virginia Press. what’s nExt for BradBurn Douglas Bradburn’s examination Gordon becomes what Bradburn “i want them to come away feeling like of the Revolutionary Era is far from calls a “witness to empire” by they understand this better than they over. Bradburn is undertaking a providing firsthand accounts of did before and that it’s a satisfyingly long-term project that looks at the what the British Atlantic looked like rich picture of a period that’s very dis- origins of the American Revolution as the Revolution neared. Gordon tinct from today but still struggled with and the causes for the collapse of also played a supporting role in the a lot of the issues that we continue to the British state. conflict by taking the Stamp Act fight over in our fundamental political resolves back to Britain. disagreements,” he said. “There’s no consensus among academic historians about why it “He’s staying with people and Bradburn also wants academic readers happened,” said Bradburn, who writing about who they are,” to re-examine the chronology of the anticipates the book being a five- Bradburn said. “He contrasts american Revolution. year project. “There are compelling Jamaicans, South Carolinians, arguments, but there’s no debate. New Englanders and Virginians. “i want them to understand that the That’s what I am trying to re-ignite: He’s bright in his portraits of these Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 way the academic world thinks about interest in that moment.” regions.” this period is wrong,”he said.“the over- emphasis on the ratification moment is In the interim, Bradburn is planning Bradburn also is editing with John misplaced. We need to understand the a book about Lord Adam Gordon, C. Coombs of Hampden-Sydney politics of the 1790s to understand the a Scottish aristocrat who traveled College a book of essays by young american Revolution. these are the big- the British Atlantic in the American scholars about 17th- and early stakes arguments that i want to last.” colonies, Canada and West Indies 18th-century Virginia called Early in 1763 following the Seven Years’ Modern Virginia: New Essays on the — Eric Coker War. Old Dominion. 25
  28. 28. nursE finds that girls arE lEss likEly to BE tEEn moms if thEir parEnts gEt involvEd in thE community Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 26
  29. 29. if it takes a village to raise a child, what about that village works best? are there qualities at work in certain neighborhoods that help point youngsters toward success in life? susan seibold-simpson, clinical after the fact. “What can we do at the assistant professor in Binghamton community level,” she asked, “to make University’s Decker school of nursing, a teenager feel she has more options hopes that by learning to understand in life than becoming a teen mom, so the influence of neighborhoods, nurses she might choose to delay childbearing can help reduce a major risk that until she’s a little older?” limits opportunities for girls — teen pregnancy. one of her most tantalizing seibold-simpson took inspiration findings suggests that when parents get from social psychologist Peter Benson’s involved in community organizations, work on positive youth development, their daughters may be less likely to which stresses giving children assets become young mothers. to help them succeed. as a public health professional, she also seized as a nurse practitioner in reproductive on the concept of social capital, which health since 1988, seibold-simpson looks at relationships among people in has too often seen early motherhood communities. shut doors in the faces of adolescent girls. “a lot of the teenagers i work with come from difficult families,” seibold- “once a young woman becomes simpson said. as mothers struggle to pregnant, whether it was planned or raise their kids, she wondered, what not, it appears to substantially alter her can the neighborhood contribute to prospects of continuing in school and help launch children in a positive going to college,”said seibold-simpson, direction? who still works several hours a week at a clinic near campus. the young mother to find answers, seibold-simpson often stays involved with the baby’s examined data from the national father, even if he makes a bad partner, Longitudinal study of adolescent limiting her chances for other, healthier health, a survey of about 90,000 relationships. and early motherhood adolescents in grades 7-12 conducted Binghamton University / Binghamton ReseaRch / 2010 might doom her to a life of low-paying in 1994 and 1995. she chose about jobs, with little time and few resources 2,000 girls from this sample, based to devote to her children. on several criteria: they were sexually active; they answered survey questions While caring for individuals, seibold- about sexual activity, use of condoms simpson came to realize that she also and use of contraceptives; and the wanted to make a difference on a mother or father (usually the mother) larger scale. and she wanted to prevent had responded to a separate survey problems, not just deal with them for parents. 27