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# Alison

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### Alison

1. 1. BUS 211: Presentation Dr. Bynoe By: Alison Garcia Ellie Merewalesi Maravou Jun Zhao CH 10: What is a Rival Cause? CH 11: Are the Statistics Deceptive?
2. 2. Outline <ul><li>CHAPTER 10: </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this chapter is to introduce rival causes. This chapter will include the definition of rival causes, how to find rival causes, and how to accept or reject an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>CHAPTER 11: </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this chapter is to introduce deceptive statistics. This chapter will explain the types of statistics as well as their reasoning. </li></ul>
3. 3. What is a Rival Cause? <ul><li>A rival cause is a possible explanation of a certain result. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=GvpbzRf99-8 </li></ul></ul>http://soccerlens.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/stewie-family-guy.jpg
4. 4. Detecting Rival Causes <ul><li>__ has the effect of </li></ul><ul><li>__ leads to </li></ul><ul><li>__ influences </li></ul><ul><li>__ is a factor in </li></ul><ul><li>__ is linked to </li></ul><ul><li>__ increase the likelihood </li></ul><ul><li>__ deters </li></ul><ul><li>__ determines </li></ul><ul><li>__ contributes to </li></ul><ul><li>__ associated with </li></ul>
5. 5. Detecting Rival Causes (cont.) <ul><li>Ask yourself these questions when rival causes are possible: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can I think of any other way to interpret the evidence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If this interpretation is incorrect, what other interpretation might make sense </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. <ul><li>The Cause: is the only solution to a problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Math Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A cause: a possible solution to a problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Literature Class </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>The cause or A cause
7. 7. Rival causes for differences between groups <ul><li>Researchers Compare Groups to Find a Cause </li></ul>
8. 8. Confusing Causation with association <ul><li>DELETE SLIDE REPETITIVE FROM LAST SLIDE </li></ul>
9. 9. “ After This” and “Because of this” <ul><li>People seem to believe that if 2 events occurred, one must have caused another. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gs1Vy-LLl_o </li></ul>
10. 10. Explaining Individual Events or Acts
11. 11. Pervasiveness of Rival Causes
12. 12. Are the Statistics Deceptive? <ul><li>Unknowable and Biased Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics are usually educated guesses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Always Ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How were the statistics obtained?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How did the author arrive at the estimate?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is the author credible?” </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Confusing Averages <ul><li>3 ways to determine averages: </li></ul><ul><li>Mean: Add all the values and divide this total by the number of values used. </li></ul><ul><li>Median: Arrange the values from highest to lowest, then pick middle # </li></ul><ul><li>Mode: Value that appears most frequently </li></ul>
14. 14. Class Activities
15. 15. True or False <ul><li>When researchers use a control group in their research, they don't have to worry about rival causes. </li></ul>
16. 16. True or False <ul><li>The more plausible rival causes that you come up with, the less confidence you should have in the initial explanation offered by an author. </li></ul>
17. 17. True or False <ul><li>We can assume that if two events are associated or correlated then one causes the other. </li></ul>
18. 18. Classmate Feud