ETHOS-PATHOS-LOGOS And the Aristotelian Model of Argument
2 Steps in Aristotelian Argument  <ul><li>Make a claim </li></ul><ul><li>Prove the claim </li></ul>
How do you prove the claim? <ul><li>Establish credibility (ethos) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to logic (logos) </li></ul><ul>...
Rhetorical Triangle <ul><li>3 elements in dynamic relationship: </li></ul>Ethos Pathos Logos
<ul><li>Logical appeals </li></ul>Logos:
Logos <ul><li>Logos: logical appeals that focus on the  subject   </li></ul><ul><li>of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Examp...
Induction <ul><li>Go from specific examples to generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:  I took a math test and I got hives </...
Deduction <ul><li>Go from generalization to specific </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:  All MSC students must pass ENGL 1101 in order ...
<ul><li>Establishing Credibility </li></ul>Ethos:
Ethos <ul><li>Ethical appeal in which the focus is on the  writer’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge </li...
<ul><li>Emotional Appeal </li></ul>Pathos:
Pathos <ul><li>Emotional appeal in which the focus is on the  reader </li></ul><ul><li>Description and concrete language <...
<ul><li>An argument advocating for environmental intervention </li></ul>Man-Made Global Warming
Ethos <ul><li>“ As an environmental scientist who has dedicated the  </li></ul><ul><li>last 25 years of my life studying t...
Logos <ul><li>America has had a 20% increase in carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels since 1990 </li>...
Pathos <ul><li>“ Like an oncoming freight train, global warming threatens the noble and beautiful polar bear with extincti...
Works Cited <ul><li>Braasch, Gary.  The   Photographic Documentation of Climate Change  home page.  28 Aug. 2008 <http://w...
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Pathos-Ethos-Logos

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Pathos-Ethos-Logos

  1. 1. ETHOS-PATHOS-LOGOS And the Aristotelian Model of Argument
  2. 2. 2 Steps in Aristotelian Argument <ul><li>Make a claim </li></ul><ul><li>Prove the claim </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do you prove the claim? <ul><li>Establish credibility (ethos) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to logic (logos) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to emotion (pathos) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rhetorical Triangle <ul><li>3 elements in dynamic relationship: </li></ul>Ethos Pathos Logos
  5. 5. <ul><li>Logical appeals </li></ul>Logos:
  6. 6. Logos <ul><li>Logos: logical appeals that focus on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Examples and precedents </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities and testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Induction and deduction </li></ul>
  7. 7. Induction <ul><li>Go from specific examples to generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: I took a math test and I got hives </li></ul><ul><li> I took an English test and I got hives </li></ul><ul><li> I took a history test and I got hives </li></ul><ul><li> I took a science test and I got hives </li></ul><ul><li> Conclusion: Tests give me hives </li></ul>
  8. 8. Deduction <ul><li>Go from generalization to specific </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: All MSC students must pass ENGL 1101 in order </li></ul><ul><li>to graduate </li></ul><ul><li> I am an MSC student </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: I must pass ENGL 1101 in order to </li></ul><ul><li> graduate </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Establishing Credibility </li></ul>Ethos:
  10. 10. Ethos <ul><li>Ethical appeal in which the focus is on the writer’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Establish common ground </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate fairness </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Emotional Appeal </li></ul>Pathos:
  12. 12. Pathos <ul><li>Emotional appeal in which the focus is on the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Description and concrete language </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>An argument advocating for environmental intervention </li></ul>Man-Made Global Warming
  14. 14. Ethos <ul><li>“ As an environmental scientist who has dedicated the </li></ul><ul><li>last 25 years of my life studying the earth’s climate, </li></ul><ul><li>I believe that man-made global warming is a serious </li></ul><ul><li>problem.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Logos <ul><li>America has had a 20% increase in carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels since 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Another 15% increase in carbon dioxide emissions is predicted by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 was the hottest year in recorded history in the continental United States </li></ul><ul><li>(Environmental Defense Fund) </li></ul><ul><li>According to NOAA, the global warming rate in the last 25 years has risen to 3.6 degrees F per century. (Braasch) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pathos <ul><li>“ Like an oncoming freight train, global warming threatens the noble and beautiful polar bear with extinction. As the ice melts, these magnificent, iconic creatures will face the devastating, painful realities of hunger and ultimate starvation. No longer will the mother cub be able to care for her once frolicking and playful little pups. ” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Works Cited <ul><li>Braasch, Gary. The Photographic Documentation of Climate Change home page. 28 Aug. 2008 <http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Global Warming by the Numbers.” Environmental Defense Fund . 30 Aug. 2007. 28 Aug. 2008 <http://www.edf.org/article.cfm?contentID=5816> </li></ul>

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