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Unit 3, Part 1 The Periodic Table Chemistry Notes
What is Periodicity? <ul><li>Means to  occur at regular periods/intervals </li></ul><ul><li>In chemistry, it applies to th...
The Periodic Law <ul><li>Chemical and physical properties of elements are functions of their  ATOMIC NUMBERS </li></ul><ul...
The Periodic Table <ul><li>Graphical representation of the Periodic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Elements positioned according to...
Organization of P.Table <ul><li>Group  = vertical column </li></ul><ul><li>Period  = horizontal row </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
The Zig-Zag Line <ul><li>The “Stair case” on the P.Table </li></ul><ul><li>Metals  – to left  </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals ...
Properties of Metals <ul><li>Luster (shiny) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct heat, electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable (sheet...
Metalloids <ul><li>Often called semi-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of both metals & nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Ofte...
The Representative Elements <ul><li>A  elements (main-group) </li></ul><ul><li>Groups 1A – 8A </li></ul><ul><li>Have a wid...
Types of Representative Elements <ul><li>1A = Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><li>--soft </li></ul><ul><li>--very reactive – e...
<ul><li>6A = Chalcogens </li></ul><ul><li>--tend to gain 2 electrons (form -2 ions) </li></ul><ul><li>--nonmetals </li></u...
<ul><li>8A = Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><li>--mostly unreactive (inert) </li></ul><ul><li>--outer energy level is filled, s...
Transition Elements <ul><li>B  elements (metals) </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of electrons in outer energy levels vary, s...
Lanthanides & Actinides <ul><li>Bottom of P.Table </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanides  (follow Lanthanum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Trend #1 – Ionization Energy <ul><li>Energy needed to remove an electron from an atom </li></ul><ul><li>General Trend =  i...
Trend #2 - Electronegativity <ul><li>How strongly an atom  attracts  electrons (to itself) in a bond, particularly when e-...
Trend #3 – Atomic Radius <ul><li>Essentially –  size of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by calculating bond radius </li>...
Trend #4 – Ionic Radii <ul><li>Cations (+ charge) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally smaller than parent atom because of elec...
Trend #5 – Electron Affinity <ul><li>The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom  gains  an electron </li></ul><ul><...
The Trends in Summary http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillchem3/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/CH08/FG08_1...
From Where Did the Elements Come? <ul><li>~93 in nature (Np, Pm, Tc – in stars) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactions in sta...
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Periodicity2

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Periodicity2

  1. 1. Unit 3, Part 1 The Periodic Table Chemistry Notes
  2. 2. What is Periodicity? <ul><li>Means to occur at regular periods/intervals </li></ul><ul><li>In chemistry, it applies to the Periodic Table – the arrangement of elements and their chemical properties </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Periodic Law <ul><li>Chemical and physical properties of elements are functions of their ATOMIC NUMBERS </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic means to repeat </li></ul><ul><li>1st proposed by Dmitri Mendeleev, who related periodic functions to atomic mass </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Periodic Table <ul><li>Graphical representation of the Periodic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Elements positioned according to atomic number and electron structure </li></ul><ul><li>Long and short forms </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organization of P.Table <ul><li>Group = vertical column </li></ul><ul><li>Period = horizontal row </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements in the same row have the same number of occupied energy levels . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period = Energy Level in Atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 7 periods… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Zig-Zag Line <ul><li>The “Stair case” on the P.Table </li></ul><ul><li>Metals – to left </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals – to right </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids (semi-metals) – along stair case </li></ul>http://img.sparknotes.com/content/testprep/bookimgs/sat2/chemistry/0001/sat117002_0407.gif
  7. 7. Properties of Metals <ul><li>Luster (shiny) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct heat, electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable (sheets) </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile (wires) </li></ul><ul><li>Solid, except for Mercury (liquid ) </li></ul><ul><li>Low numbers of outer (valence) shell electrons </li></ul><ul><li>High density </li></ul><ul><li>Most have high melting points </li></ul>Nonmetals – have opposite characteristics!
  8. 8. Metalloids <ul><li>Often called semi-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of both metals & nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Often used as semi-conductors (Si, Ge) </li></ul>Alloys <ul><li>Mixture of metals </li></ul><ul><li>Changes properties – usually for the better </li></ul><ul><li>Example = brass (Zn, Cu); sterling silver (Ag, Cu) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Representative Elements <ul><li>A elements (main-group) </li></ul><ul><li>Groups 1A – 8A </li></ul><ul><li>Have a wide range of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in the same group (A elements) have the same number of valence electrons, which corresponds to the group number (ex: 6A = 6 valence e-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence Electrons – in outermost energy level; most likely involved in a chemical reaction </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Representative Elements <ul><li>1A = Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><li>--soft </li></ul><ul><li>--very reactive – esp. in water </li></ul><ul><li>--found in nature in compound form </li></ul><ul><li>--tend to lose 1 electron (form +1 ions) </li></ul><ul><li>2A = Alkaline Earth Metals </li></ul><ul><li>--quite reactive, also found in comp’d form </li></ul><ul><li>--tend to lose 2 electrons (form +2 ions) </li></ul><ul><li>(takes more energy to lose 2 electrons!) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>6A = Chalcogens </li></ul><ul><li>--tend to gain 2 electrons (form -2 ions) </li></ul><ul><li>--nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>--oxygen & sulfur – exist in “pure form” </li></ul><ul><li>--others – are ions within metal ores </li></ul><ul><li>7A = Halogens </li></ul><ul><li>--most reactive of nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>--react w/metals to form salts (halides) </li></ul><ul><li>--gain 1 electron (form -1 ions) </li></ul>Types of Representative Elements
  12. 12. <ul><li>8A = Noble Gases </li></ul><ul><li>--mostly unreactive (inert) </li></ul><ul><li>--outer energy level is filled, so overall charge is zero </li></ul><ul><li>--helium also has a filled outer level, so it is placed in the noble gas column </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>--most common in universe; very reactive </li></ul><ul><li>--has 1 p + and 1 e - </li></ul><ul><li>--will lose 1 e - and form +1 ion </li></ul>Types of Representative Elements
  13. 13. Transition Elements <ul><li>B elements (metals) </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of electrons in outer energy levels vary, so common ion charge changes </li></ul><ul><li>Lose different numbers of valence electrons depending on the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of reactivity…and therefore properties…varies by element </li></ul><ul><li>Common Ion Charge = +2 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lanthanides & Actinides <ul><li>Bottom of P.Table </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanides (follow Lanthanum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties of Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to 2A elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actinides (follow Actinium) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radioactive </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Trend #1 – Ionization Energy <ul><li>Energy needed to remove an electron from an atom </li></ul><ul><li>General Trend = increases to the right and up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Shielding – outermost e- are held less tightly to nucleus, so easier to lose them (in elements to left) </li></ul></ul>http://www.shodor.org/chemviz/ionization/students/background.html
  16. 16. Trend #2 - Electronegativity <ul><li>How strongly an atom attracts electrons (to itself) in a bond, particularly when e- are shared, which is called covalent bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>General Trend = increases to the right and up </li></ul>http://grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/Electronegativity/assets/ElectronegativityTrends.gif
  17. 17. Trend #3 – Atomic Radius <ul><li>Essentially – size of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by calculating bond radius </li></ul><ul><li>Size depends on volume occupied by electrons, which can change with state of matter and movement of e- </li></ul><ul><li>General Trend = increases to left and down </li></ul>http://www.shodor.org/chemviz/ionization/students/background.html
  18. 18. Trend #4 – Ionic Radii <ul><li>Cations (+ charge) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally smaller than parent atom because of electron loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Ca | Ca 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anions (- charge) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally bigger than parent atom because of electron gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: P | P 3- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Trend = increases to left and down </li></ul>
  19. 19. Trend #5 – Electron Affinity <ul><li>The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom gains an electron </li></ul><ul><li>Different from electronegativity, which measures an atom’s attraction for e- when bonded to another atom </li></ul><ul><li>General Trend = increases to the right and up </li></ul>http://www.mcatpearls.com/master/node180.html
  20. 20. The Trends in Summary http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillchem3/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/CH08/FG08_17.JPG
  21. 21. From Where Did the Elements Come? <ul><li>~93 in nature (Np, Pm, Tc – in stars) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactions in stars; Ex: H, He </li></ul><ul><li>Transmutation – a nuclear reaction, where one element changes into another </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic (lab created) – by transmutation, using particle accelerators; includes all transuranium elements (from #92 on) </li></ul>

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