13 Private Human Factors (Crm, Pdm)


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13 Private Human Factors (Crm, Pdm)

  1. 1. CFTC Ground School <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Factors & </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot Decision Making </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Human Factors - Definition <ul><li>The study of how pilot performance is influenced by such issues as cockpit design, temperature, altitude, the organs of the body, the effects of emotions, and interaction with other members of the aviation community, such as crew members or ATC. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Pilot Error <ul><li>An action or decision of the pilot that if not caught and corrected, could contribute to the occurrence of an accident or incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Inaction or Indecision </li></ul>
  4. 5. Accidents – Phase of Flight <ul><li>22% Take off and climb </li></ul><ul><li>17% Cruise </li></ul><ul><li>61% Descent and landing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United 774 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed with 10 kt tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on a slippery runway. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Accident Profile <ul><li>The pilot most likely to have an accident is between 50 – 100 hours, after receiving a pilot license. </li></ul><ul><li>Then at 200 hours when the pilot receives an instrument rating. </li></ul><ul><li>Next is the pilot between 100 – 500 hours, when confidence exceeds their ability level. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Basic Decision Making Process <ul><li>Gather Information </li></ul><ul><li>Process Information </li></ul><ul><li>Make Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Act on Decisions </li></ul>
  7. 8. Gather Information <ul><li>Info is gathered by use of eyes, ears, touch, nose. </li></ul><ul><li>Two errors can occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Info may be wrong or distorted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We gather the correct info, but we misinterpret the information. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Gather Information <ul><li>If we receive less than accurate information, the more likely the pilot is to make a poor decision. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual illusions while flying. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upslope/ Down Slope runways </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Process Information <ul><li>Take in the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose relevant vs irrelevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile trying to fly the aircraft. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Process Information <ul><li>Several errors can occur while processing info: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention may be applied too heavily to one item, while neglecting others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or making an error and not validating info by crosschecking. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Decision Making <ul><li>Our decision making process is affected by such things as emotional state, stress, pressures, or specific conditions such as lack of oxygen. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Implementing Decisions <ul><li>Even if a pilot makes correct decisions, problems can occur that detract from the pilots ability to react, such as debilitating effects from fatigue, drugs or hypoxia. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Dealing with Human Factors <ul><li>AWARENESS: Aware of the affects of hypoxia, drugs and alcohol and how they may affect your decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of how to get the most out of the aviation community. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Attitude <ul><li>A safety conscious attitude, always thinking of how safety comes to play. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Discipline <ul><li>No amount of learning will suffice without some mental discipline whereby we listen to the little voice inside of us. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Knowledge <ul><li>Knowing something isn’t the same as knowing what to do. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Aviation Physiology <ul><li>Hypoxia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition whereby body cells lack sufficient oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of sufficient oxygen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to absorb oxygen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical situation affecting breathing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Aviation Physiology <ul><li>An individual is usually unaware of the onset of hypoxia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria, well being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowed reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanosis (blue finger nails) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Hypoxic Hypoxia <ul><li>Caused by lower oxygen content in the atmosphere with increasing altitude . </li></ul><ul><li>Time of useful Consciousness at altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 ft Hour’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 ft 5-12 min’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 ft 45-75 sec’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40,000 ft 13-30 sec’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45,000 ft 12-15 sec’s </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Anemic Hypoxia <ul><li>Blood cannot carry sufficient oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin in the blood collects carbon monoxide 210 times more quickly than oxygen. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Cigarette Smoke will promote Carbon Monoxide poisoning in the bloodstream
  22. 23. Hystotoxic Hypoxia <ul><li>Occurs when cells are incapable of utilizing oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs and Alcohol are a most probable cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Debilitating effects of alcohol are magnified with increased altitude. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Drugs <ul><li>Including marijuana and LSD have similar impairing effects to alcohol. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Hyperventilation <ul><li>Is caused by stress and occurs when breathing is too fast and too deep. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals include dizziness, difficulty with breathing, clamminess. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperventilation is diminished by deliberately holding the breath and slowing the rate of breathing. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Gas Expansion / Trapped Gasses <ul><li>Changes in barometric pressure related to changing altitudes will result in expansion of gas trapped in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The common cold may result in ear and sinus block. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Decompression <ul><li>At high altitude, nitrogen (always present in the body) comes out of solution causing decompression sickness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bends, cramps, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chokes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Scuba Diving <ul><li>After Scuba Diving flights over 8,000 feet should be delayed by 48 hours. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Vision <ul><li>Vision is crucial to VFR and IFR flight. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Vision <ul><li>Factors affecting vision in flight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty field Myopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Light condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoxia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty Windshield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glare </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Visual Scanning <ul><li>Proper scanning is crucial to VFR flight. </li></ul><ul><li>Most mid-air collisions occur during day VFR within 5 miles of an airport. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Hearing <ul><li>Expectancy often occurs when the communication is poor and the listener subconsciously fills in the gaps by reference to previous experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleared Take off runway 34, left turn 030, climb to 4,500.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleared Take off runway 34 left 230, climb to 4,500” </li></ul>
  32. 33. Listening and Verifying <ul><li>“ Turn 250” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Turn to 50” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Climb to 5,000” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Climb 25,000” </li></ul><ul><li>Reading back ATC clearances is a way to focus on your listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Also if you do not understand ATC or another crew member, ask questions. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Orientation/ Disorientation <ul><li>When there is no visual reference, as in a cloud, our body becomes dependent on vestibular organs for orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a number of illusions that occur when visual reference is lost. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Upslope and Down-slope
  35. 36. Wider or Narrower Runways
  36. 37. Airsickness <ul><li>Common for low time pilots. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally associated with disorientation resulting from aircraft maneuvers. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Body Rhythms & Jet Lag <ul><li>Jet Lag is caused by time zone changes, whereby circadian rhythms become out of synchronization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear/eyes/nose irritation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light headedness </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Fatigue <ul><li>Often a contributing factor in aviation accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute fatigue is caused by intense physical or mental activity over a short time. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic fatigue results from many situations of acute fatigue, along with stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Both types diminish pilot performance, problem solving skills and lack of concentration. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Pilot Fatigue <ul><li>On the day of the accident, the pilot had been flying the aircraft at low level for most of the day, with minimal rest periods. He had only recently qualified for his private pilot licence and a significant portion of his total flying hours had been accumulated in the 9 days before the accident. During this period, he had exceeded the flight and duty times normally permitted for a commercial operation. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Blood Donations <ul><li>If you must donate blood, Do not fly for 48 hours. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Anesthetics <ul><li>General Anesthetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fly until advised it is safe too do so by your doctor. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Anesthetics <ul><li>Local Anesthetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For minor operations such as dental work, flying is acceptable after 8 hours. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Medications <ul><li>Generally, taking medication is an indication of not being well enough to fly. </li></ul><ul><li>An aviation medical examiner should be consulted regarding possible side effects and time to clear. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Medications 48 hours Sulfa Drugs 12 hours Barbituates 4 weeks Tranquilizer 30 hours Increased blood pressure Phenylpropanola-mine 30 hours Increased heart rate Anithistamine 15 hours Decongestant, stimulant Ephedrine 15 hours Pain Killer, may mask real problem Acetaminophen 2 hours Pain Killer, may mask real problem Aspirin Varies Stimulant, induces anxiety Caffeine Time To Clear Effects Chemical
  46. 47. Substance Abuse <ul><li>Over the past 10 years about 10% of fatal aviation accidents were related to alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol impairs memory, thinking, PDM, vision, hearing and coordination. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Alcohol <ul><li>No Flying for 8 hours after the consumption of alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>After tie one on, wait 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>After a real bender, wait 48 hours. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Mind altering Drugs <ul><li>Marijuana, LSD and cocaine have a similar impact on flying as alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>NO drugs in the system while flying. </li></ul><ul><li>0% alcohol in the system while flying. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Pregnancy <ul><li>Pilots may fly up to 30 weeks into pregnancy, provided there are no complications. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Hypothermia <ul><li>Results from prolonged exposure to low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Slows bodily functions, causes drowsiness. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Hyperthermia / Heat Stroke <ul><li>In high temperatures heat stroke may occur as a result of the body not being able to dissipate heat through sweating. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared for hot/cold conditions. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Noise/ Vibration <ul><li>Exposure to noise or vibration for many hours may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamper crew communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause hearing damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause stress </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. TAKE FIVE