Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation

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Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation

  1. 1. Periodic Table Metals, Non-Metals, Groups and Periods
  2. 2. Metals <ul><li>Metals are located left of the black line on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals become cations, they lose electrons. Positive charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals are maleable and ductile and they are also conductors of heat and electricity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Non-Metals <ul><li>Located right of the black line on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Metals gain electrons and become negatively charged. </li></ul><ul><li>Not conductors, brittle (if solid), not ductile. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Metaloids <ul><li>Located along the line on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Share properties of metals and non-metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically used in electronics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Groups <ul><li>Group IA has a +1 charge, lose 1 electron. Also known as the Alkali Metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft and white and highly reactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Group IIA has a +2 charge, lose 2 electrons. Also known as the Alkaline Earth Metals. React easily with the halogens to form salts. </li></ul>
  6. 6. More Groups <ul><li>Group VIIA has a -1 charge. They gain one electron. This group is known as the halogens. Highly reactive, fluorine is one of the most reactive elements in existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Group VIIIA are known as the Noble Gases. Full valence electron shell. Non-reactive. Important for use in welding, lighting, and space exploration. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>Oxidation is the losing of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was combining with oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction is the gaining of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was removing oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>LEO says GER or OIL RIG </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of Oxidation
  9. 9. Examples of Oxidation
  10. 10. Reduction
  11. 11. Oxidation Characteristics <ul><li>Complete loss of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of electrons away from an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Gain of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in oxidation number </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Reduction <ul><li>Complete gain of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of electrons toward an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in oxidation number </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rules for Assigning Oxidation #’s <ul><li>1. Oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. Ex: Br 1- is -1 and Fe 3+ is +3. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is +1, except in metal hydrides like NaH then it is +1. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation number of oxygen in compounds is -2. </li></ul>
  14. 14. continued <ul><li>4. The oxidation number of an atom in an uncombined elemental form is 0. </li></ul><ul><li>5. For any neutral compound the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal zero. </li></ul><ul><li>For a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal the ionic charge of the ion. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trends in Atomic Radius
  16. 16. Octet Rule <ul><li>Atoms, gain or lose electrons so they have 8 electrons in their outer shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Think in terms of the Noble Gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron configurations will be extremely important to understand here. </li></ul><ul><li>The s and p sublevels must be full!!! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Octet Rule <ul><li>Na is in Group IA. It becomes Na + . </li></ul><ul><li>Na has 11 electrons, 1 valence electron. Valence electrons are in the outer most shell. </li></ul><ul><li>If Na + has one less electron, it now has 10. Which element has 10 e? Neon </li></ul>
  18. 18. Octet Rule <ul><li>Magnesium has 12 electrons. It is in group IIA. Its oxidation number is +2. </li></ul><ul><li>Mg becomes Mg 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>It loses 2 e- and now has 10 electrons, it has 8 valence electrons, just like neon. </li></ul><ul><li>Mg 2+ electron configuration is: </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Neon’s configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Octet Rule <ul><li>Fluorine becomes F - </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine has 7 electrons in the valence shell. Gaining one electron gives it 8. </li></ul><ul><li>It now has 10 total e-, just like neon. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the electron configuration for this ion? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Octet Rule <ul><li>The “A” Group numbers refer to the number of valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Group IA has 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Group IIA has 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Group IIIA has 3. </li></ul><ul><li>All the way to group VIIIA which has 8. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot go higher than VIIIA. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Oxidation Numbers <ul><li>For each e- the atom loses, your number is +1. For example, Group IA is +1, Group IIA is +2. </li></ul><ul><li>For each e- the atom gains, your number is -1. For example, Group VIA is -2, Group VIIA is -1. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Oxidation Numbers <ul><li>The oxidation numbers of a neutral compound must equal 0. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Na + must combine with something that will have a -1 charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Na + + Cl -  NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>(+1) + (-1) =0 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg 2+ + S 2-  MgS </li></ul><ul><li>(+2) + (-2) = 0 </li></ul>

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