Unit 1 Part 2


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Unit 1 Part 2

  1. 1. Part 2 – The Scientific Method
  2. 2. <ul><li>Remember to duplicate </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  3. 3. TAKS Objective 1 <ul><li>Biology (2) and Integrated Physics and Chemistry (2) Scientific Processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Here’s what you have to do if you want to pass this part of the TAKS: </li></ul><ul><li>Know the names and use of standard lab equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to pick out and use the steps of the scientific method. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick out the following from a description of an experiment: hypothesis, independent variables, dependent variable, control, data, and conclusion . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Laboratory Equipment “ The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. - Grade 11 TAKS Science Information Booklet. p 16.
  5. 5. <ul><li>This Experiment was probably set up to determine— </li></ul><ul><li>A how much mechanical energy the battery produces </li></ul><ul><li>B the pH of water during electrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>C the pressure created by electrical current </li></ul><ul><li>D how much energy is converted to heat </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  6. 6. <ul><li>The picture above shows a compound microscope. What part of the microscope should be used to adjust the amount of light illuminating a prepared slide? </li></ul><ul><li>A Eyepiece </li></ul><ul><li>B Rotating nosepiece </li></ul><ul><li>C Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>D Coarse-focus knob </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 Exit TAKS
  7. 7. Experiments <ul><li>Experiments are designed to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe how something behaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate an observation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test an idea, prediction, hypothesis, or even an inference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get an answer to a question. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Scientific Method <ul><li>The scientific Method is a collection of steps used for solving a problem or answering a question. </li></ul><ul><li>There are specific steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a Question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and conduct an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the Results of the Experiment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw Conclusions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ask a Question </li></ul><ul><li>All experiments start with a question. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Form a Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis – an “educated guess” or a prediction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The table shows times required for water to evaporate from identical containers. Which of these is the best question to ask before developing a reasonable hypothesis to explain the data? </li></ul><ul><li>F Why does a lower temperature slow the rate of evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>G What is the boiling point of the water after both samples are heated </li></ul><ul><li>H Why does water exist as a solid at -15 °C and as a liquid 25°C? </li></ul><ul><li>J How does the rate of evaporation change when a different container is used? </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  12. 12. 3. Design and Conduct the experiment
  13. 13. <ul><li>Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide? </li></ul><ul><li>H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian Atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>J Have the scientist’s other predictions about Mars been validated? </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  14. 14. <ul><li>This hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. </li></ul><ul><li>Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>A Tracking duct clouds with satellite photos. </li></ul><ul><li>B Determining the effects of iron on limestone </li></ul><ul><li>C Calculating erosion rates in African limestone mines </li></ul><ul><li>D Analyzing the conten of comet dust clouds </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 Exit TAKS
  15. 15. <ul><li>Two science students discovered that the mass of a sample of acetone in an open beaker decreased within a few minutes. One students hypothesized that the acetone reacted with oxygen to form a gaseous compound that escaped. The other student believed that the acetone evaporated into the air. What should the students do to test these hypotheses? </li></ul><ul><li>F Combine the hypotheses so they give valid predictions of the acetone’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>G Conduct a study of original papers describing the experiments leading to acetone’s discovery </li></ul><ul><li>H Perform an experiment that attempts to identify the gas above the open beaker </li></ul><ul><li>J Ask a classmate’s opinion about the chemical and physical properties of acetone </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 Exit TAKS
  16. 16. Designing an Experiment <ul><li>Plan for the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use your materials and equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a single test Variable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a Variable that will change due to the test variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control other variables. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Variables in a controlled experiment <ul><li>Variables that will change during an experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Variable – this is what is changed by the experimenter during the experiment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I change the I ndependent Variable” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable – this variable is observed for a change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dependent variable should change because of the independent variable. This is what will allows us to draw a conclusion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Variables the scientist do not want to change are controlled. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The experiment is designed to keep variables other than the independent variable from affecting the dependent variable. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>A medical researcher hypothesizes that a newly developed medication can reduce high blood pressure. Which of these would most likely be the dependent variable in a study involving this medication? </li></ul><ul><li>A The number of participants in the study </li></ul><ul><li>B The ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications </li></ul><ul><li>C The blood pressure of the participants in the study </li></ul><ul><li>D The number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications. </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2006 Exit TAKS
  20. 20. Example of a controlled experiment <ul><li>What was the researchers hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the independent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the dependent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What variables did the researchers control? How? </li></ul><ul><li>What data did the researchers have to collect during the experiment? </li></ul>
  21. 21. In this experiment what should be placed in the control container? A water, and 1% hormone. B seeds and water C seeds only D 1% hormone only Control Experimental groups soil soil seeds Water and 5% hormone Water and 10 % hormone Sample Question
  22. 22. <ul><li>The diagram shows different setups of an experiment to determine how sharks find their prey. Which experimental setup is the control? </li></ul><ul><li>F Q </li></ul><ul><li>G R </li></ul><ul><li>H S </li></ul><ul><li>J T </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2004 Exit TAKS
  23. 23. Conduct the experiment <ul><li>Perform Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and Record Data </li></ul><ul><li>Use Mathematics to analyze Data. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Analyze the Results of an Experiment <ul><li>Do the observations or data have a trend? </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Which question could be formed based on these data? </li></ul><ul><li>F What types of plants have increased productivity in different habitats? </li></ul><ul><li>G Is there a relationship between productivity and bird diversity in a habitat? </li></ul><ul><li>H How does the number of birds in a population affect habitats? </li></ul><ul><li>J Do habitats display changes in productivity and bird diversity during different seasons </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2004 Exit TAKS
  26. 26. <ul><li>A catapult was designed to project a small metal ball at a target. The resulting data are shown in the table. Which of these might explain the difference between the calculated and actual differences? </li></ul><ul><li>A The ball landed short of the calculated distance because of an increase in momentum. </li></ul><ul><li>B Air resistance caused the ball to land short of the calculated distance. </li></ul><ul><li>C The initial mass of the ball changed with each trial. </li></ul><ul><li>D The metal ball was too small for accurate measurements to be made </li></ul>Sample Question Source: Spring 2003 Exit TAKS
  27. 27. 5. Draw Conclusions <ul><li>Did your observations support or refute your hypothesis? </li></ul>