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08 Conjunctions

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08 Conjunctions

  1. 1. Conjunctions A conjunctions is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. Sharon and Criselda are busy. (connects words) Jam may have placed the key on the table or in her bag . (connects phrases) Oxygen is important , but it is not the only gas in the air . (connects clauses)
  2. 2. Kinds of Conjunctions <ul><li>Coordinating Conjunctions - used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses: subject + subject, phrase + phrase, sentence + sentence . They always come between the words or clauses that they join. FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so . </li></ul>The visitors have tickets for the symphony and the opera . (noun phrase + noun phrase) The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, but the choir rehearses on Wednesday. (sentence + sentence) Diane wanted to sit in the front of the balcony, so she ordered tickets early. (sentence + sentence)
  3. 3. Kinds of Conjunctions <ul><li>Subordinating Conjunctions - used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause. They connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal and function as adverbs. They are usually placed at the beginning of the subordinate clause. </li></ul>Time: after, before, when, while, since, until The students are going to eat (main clause) after they finish taking the test. (dependent clause) Cause & Effect: because, since, now that, as, in order that, so The students are going to eat (main clause) since they are already hungry. (dependent clause)
  4. 4. Kinds of Conjunctions Opposition: although, though, even though, whereas, while Although the line was long and the wait over two hours, (dependent clause) the exhibit was well worth it. (main clause) Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, in case (that) Even if fans have already bought the tickets, (dependent clause) they will still need to wait in line. (main clause)
  5. 5. Kinds of Conjunctions <ul><li>Correlative Conjunctions - paired conjunctions used to connect balanced words, phrases, and clauses. These are: both...and, either ... or, just as ... so, neither ... nor, not only ...b ut also, whether ... or. </li></ul>Both Tam and Tim play the piano. (subject + subject) Tonight's program is either Mozart or Beethoven. (noun + noun) Not only does Sue raise money for the symphony, but she also ushers at all of their concerts. (sentence + sentence ) Neither the orchestra nor the chorus was able to overcome the terrible acoustics in the church. (subject + subject)
  6. 6. Adverbial Conjunctions <ul><li>Adverbial Conjunctions are used to create complex relationships between ideas. They are also called transitional devices. They are preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. </li></ul>Addition: again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too Comparison: also, in the same way, likewise, similarly Concession: granted, naturally, of course
  7. 7. Emphasis: certainly, indeed, in fact, of course Example or Illustration: after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly Adverbial Conjunctions Contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet
  8. 8. Time Sequence: after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when Adverbial Conjunctions Summary: all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize

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