07 Prepositions

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07 Prepositions

  1. 1. Prepositions <ul><li>A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. </li></ul>The book is on the table. <ul><li>The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence </li></ul>The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. Dina read the book during class.
  2. 2. Prepositional Phrase <ul><li>A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. </li></ul>The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. <ul><li>A prepositional phrase can function as a noun (specifically as a nominal in conjunction with the verb “to be” ) , an adjective (modifies a noun) , or an adverb (modifies a verb) . </li></ul>James is between Kris and Philip. (noun) The boat with the blue sail left this morning. (adjective) The team won without the starting quarterback. (adverb)
  3. 3. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Space and Movement – used for both space and movement, depending on the meaning of the rest of the sentence. </li></ul>above, across, against, along, alongside, among, around, at, away from, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, far from, from, as (far) as, in, in front of, inside, inside of, in the middle of, into, near, next to, off, on, opposite, out, out of, outside, over, past, round, through, throughout, to, towards, under, underneath, up Shirley is waiting outside the door. The thief passed through the back door
  4. 4. Set Phrases with Prepositions of Space Harriet lives in Denver. (a city) in Colorado. (a state or province) on Green Ave. (street without a number) at 277 Green Ave. (street with a number) in Room 77 OR in Apartment 77-A. (specific) Hannah lives in Canada. (a country) at OR away from home. on a farm. in a dormitory, a house, an apartment, a hostel. in poverty, wealth, a city, a suburb, a town, a village. in the South, the West. (region or section) The plane landed in Chicago. at O'Hare airport. at the Chicago airport.
  5. 5. Set Phrases with Prepositions of Space Patrick is in college. at the university . The tourists are going Their house is (located) across the Rocky Mountains. across the Mississippi River. across the desert. on the beach. on the ocean. at the shore. in the mountains. on the river, the bay, the lake, the plains. in the desert.
  6. 6. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Time </li></ul>after, as (late) as, before, during, for (+ a period of time), in, on, prior to, since (+ a point in time), to, till, until,up to, upon During means while the event is in progress: During the 1960s many nations of Africa became independent. For marks a length of time or an appointed time: This tree has been here for two hundred years. Since marks the beginning of a period of time (usually used with the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense) : The teenagers have been sitting on the grass since 5 o'clock waiting for the concert to begin.
  7. 7. Set Phrases with Prepositions of Time Paul always comes as early/late/soon as possible. at ten o'clock, 3 PM. (specific time) on time. in time for class. Paul waited/did not come Paul visited Canada until (till) ten o'clock. in 1980. (year) in May. (month) on May 18. (complete date) on May 18, 2009. on Wednesday. (day of the week) in the morning, the afternoon, the daytime, the night. at noon, midnight, night. Great social changes have taken place in/during the past ten years. Great social changes have taken place since then / 1960 / that time.
  8. 8. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Prepositions for Logical Relationships </li></ul>of – shows relationship between a part or parts and the whole. One of the latest methods of contraception is already out in the market. of – shows material or content. The tourist bought a basket of straw. (The basket is made of straw.) The tourist bought a basket of tomatoes. (Tomatoes were in the basket.) of/out of/from – show origin and material. Willis is a citizen of Australia. Sarah is a student from Mexico. Amanda is a doctor of medicine. The desk is made of/from/out of wood.
  9. 9. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition for Logical Relationships </li></ul>for – shows purpose. Thelma is going for an interview tomorrow. Lindy bought a book on/about botany. on/about – show subject. except/but – show omission. No one but/except Catherine saw the new schedule.
  10. 10. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition for Logical Relationships </li></ul>by/with – show the use of an agent. These people traveled by foot/car/plane/etc. The small boy tied his shoes without ( by himself) any help. without – shows the lack of an agent. on account of/because of/owing to/due to – show cause. Note: Do not confuse because of with because . Because introduces a dependent clause that must be followed by a subject and a verb. Owing to/Due to/On account of/Because of his age, Wim could not get the job he wanted. without – shows lack or omission. Without their supporters, the teams played in an empty gym.
  11. 11. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition for Logical Relationships </li></ul>besides/together with/with/as well as/in addition to – add ideas and information. Note: Do not confuse beside with besides. Three teams besides ours played in the tournament. in spite of/despite – show concession. Despite/In spite of of the bad weather, the trip to the mountains was a success. like – shows similarities. He looks like his father, walks like his father, and eats like his father.
  12. 12. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition for Logical Relationships </li></ul>as – means in the role of. Note: Do not confuse as as preposition with as as conjunction. Mark spoke not as his doctor but as his friend. (preposition) Sheena is not as friendly as her sister is. (conjunction) Prepositions of space – often used in a figurative sense to show logical relationship. Cliff's reputation is above reproach. The costs have gone above/beyond the estimate. to – shows orientation toward a goal. Note: Do not confuse to as preposition with to as part of an infinitive phrase. Wendy is not listening to the teacher. (preposition) Wendy was asked to listen. (infinitive phrase)
  13. 13. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>above Write your name above the line . across Draw a line across the page. against She leans against the tree. ahead of The girl is ahead of the boy.
  14. 14. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>along There is a lace along the edge of the cloth. among He is among the trees. around Draw a circle around the answer. behind The boy is behind the girl.
  15. 15. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>below Write your name below the line. beneath He sat beneath the tree. beside The girl is standing beside the boy. between She is between two trees.
  16. 16. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>from He came from the house. in front of The girl is in front of the boy. inside He is inside the house. near There is a tree near the house.
  17. 17. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>off His hat is off. out of He came out of the house. through She went through the door. toward She is walking toward the house.
  18. 18. Kinds of Prepositions <ul><li>Preposition of Spatial Relationships </li></ul>under He is hiding under the table. within Please mark only within the circle.
  19. 19. Wedded Prepositions <ul><li>These are prepositions that are firmly wedded with other words that have practically become one word. </li></ul>Nouns and Prepositions approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of
  20. 20. Wedded Prepositions <ul><li>These are prepositions that are firmly wedded with other words that have practically become one word. </li></ul>Adjectives and Prepositions afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about
  21. 21. Wedded Prepositions <ul><li>These are prepositions that are firmly wedded with other words that have practically become one word. </li></ul>Verbs and Prepositions apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out give up grow up look for look forward to look up make up pay for prepare for study for talk about think about trust in work for worry about
  22. 22. Wedded Prepositions <ul><li>These are prepositions that are firmly wedded with other words that have practically become one word. </li></ul>Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions agree to a proposal with a person on a price in principle argue about a matter with a person for or against a proposition correspond to a thing with a person differ from an unlike thing with a person compare to to show likenesses with to show differences (sometimes similarities) live at an address in a house or city on a street with other people
  23. 23. Parallelism of Prepositions <ul><li>When the same preposition is required for words or phrases used in parallel, the preposition does not have to be used twice. </li></ul>Sandra wears that outfit in summer and in winter . The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance. <ul><li>However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, be careful not to omit one of them. </li></ul>The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. It was clear that Manny could both contribute to and learn from every game he played.. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman.

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