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Positives of Physical Education


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Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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Positives of Physical Education

  1. 1. Positive Physical Education NASPE Sets the Standard
  2. 2. Purpose of This Presentation <ul><li>To guide you (and the others you will assist) in serving as an articulate spokesperson for physical education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate and succinct information (“talking points”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying on message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convey the bottom line (“take home message”) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Disclaimer <ul><li>All physical education is not good physical education </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goal of Physical Education <ul><li>To develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>To guide youngsters in the process of becoming physically active for a lifetime </li></ul>
  5. 5. Popular Terms to Describe “Good” Physical Education <ul><li>Quality physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Positive physical education </li></ul>
  6. 6. Positive Physical Education <ul><li>Another term for quality physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on creating a positive environment in which all students can be successful </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition that enjoyment of physical activity is a major influence on whether a person chooses to be active </li></ul>
  7. 7. Positive (Quality) Physical Education <ul><li>Opportunity to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualified teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meaningful content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National/state standards for physical education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Formative and summative assessment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of Positive (Quality) Physical Education <ul><li>All children being active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small group games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various practice levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition of a Physically Educated Person <ul><li>HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities </li></ul><ul><li>IS physically fit </li></ul><ul><li>DOES participate regularly in physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from involvement in physical activities </li></ul><ul><li>VALUES physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Purpose of National Standards for Physical Education <ul><li>To define what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a quality physical education program </li></ul><ul><li>Provides credibility to our profession as we are one of many disciplines with standards </li></ul>
  11. 11. National Standards, 2 nd Edition <ul><li>Standard 1 : Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities (Physical skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 2 : Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities (Knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 3 : Participates regularly in physical activity (Physical activity) </li></ul>
  12. 12. National Standards, 2 nd Edition <ul><li>Standard 4 : Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness (Health-related fitness) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings (Behavioral skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (Intrinsic value) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Activity vs. Physical Education <ul><li>Physical activity = behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activity (helps student attain the knowledge and skills; does not just provide an opportunity for students to be physically active) </li></ul><ul><li>Students are physically active in physical education, but students are not (comprehensively) physically educated at recess or through sport participation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity and Education <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal government) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ES: at least 150 minutes/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS, HS: at least 225 minutes/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others that support the NASPE recommendation (e.g., CDC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Bad News
  16. 16. Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991 - 2001 Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey
  17. 17. Percentage of Schools that Require Physical Education, by Grade CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study, 2000 40 51 51 51 52 50 32 26 25 13 10 6 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 K 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th Percent of schools
  18. 18. Daily Physical Education for All Students <ul><li>Daily PE or its equivalent* is </li></ul><ul><li>provided for entire school year </li></ul><ul><li>for students in all grades in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% of middle/junior high schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% of senior high schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary schools: 225 minutes / week </li></ul></ul>Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000
  19. 19. Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight* Ages 12-19 Ages 6-11 5 4 * > 95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts **Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age Source: National Center for Health Statistics
  20. 20. Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight* Ages 12-19 Ages 6-11 5 4 16 15 * > 95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts **Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age Source: National Center for Health Statistics
  21. 21. Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>American Academy of Pediatrics - August, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of childhood obesity persisting into adulthood… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% during adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% at 4 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability that co-morbidities will persist into adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AAP, Policy Statement, Pediatrics 112(2), pp.424-430 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Economic Costs <ul><li>US obesity-attributable medical expenditures in 2003: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$75 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 10% of total US medical expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Percent financed by taxpayers through Medicare and Medicaid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 50% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Which begs the question… <ul><li>What might the statistics look like if kids in the U.S. had positive, daily physical education for 12 years of school? </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Good News
  25. 25. Recognized Solutions <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education </li></ul>
  26. 26. Physical Education’s Role in the Obesity Epidemic <ul><li>Physical inactivity is part of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity is part of the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education is a critical to increasing physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School physical education programs are the one place that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All children can participate in regular physical activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All children can become physically educated for a lifetime of physical activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. National Call to Action: Increase Physical Activity Among Youth <ul><li>Healthy People 2010 (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Better Health for Young People Through Physical Activity and Sports: A Report to the President from the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Education (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>The Surgeon General’s Call to Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to Community Preventive Services (2001) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Brain/Body Connection <ul><li>Research has not been conducted to conclusively demonstrate a link between physical activity and improved academic performance </li></ul><ul><li>However, such a link might be expected </li></ul><ul><li>Research does show that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement stimulates brain functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity increases adolescents’ self-esteem and reduces anxiety and stress…thus, through it’s effects on mental health, may help increase students’ capacity for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in time for physical education did not lead to lower test scores </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Time in the arts, physical education and school achievement <ul><li>547 elementary school principals in Virginia responded to survey </li></ul><ul><li>Time allocated for art, music and physical education with a specialist? </li></ul><ul><li>Correlated with test scores from their schools </li></ul><ul><li>No meaningful relationship found </li></ul><ul><li>Results suggest that providing time for AMPE does not negatively impact test scores </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilkins, J..M., Graham, G., Parker, S., Westfall, S. Fraser, R. & Tembo, M. (2003). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time in the arts and physical education and school achievement. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35, 721-734. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7
  31. 31. Typical Questions You May be Asked <ul><li>How much physical activity do children and adolescents need? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most important thing that schools can do to increase physical activity among children and adolescents? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students? </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do schools have to take responsibility for the physical activity of students? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Schools need to educate the whole child </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education is the only curricular subject that develops a child’s physical self </li></ul><ul><li>Children deserve a comprehensive education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s up to taxpayers and decision-makers to make this happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s up to us (and our partners) to influence taxpayers and decision-makers </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>