Human Rights


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Human Rights

  1. 1. HUMAN RIGHTS 18 december "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law."
  2. 2. Human Rights Day is observed by the international community every year on 10 December. It commemorates the day in 1948 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its formal inception dates from 1950, after the Assembly passed resolution 423 (V) inviting all States and interested organizations to adopt 10 December of each year as Human Rights Day.
  3. 3. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." The idea of human rights descended from the philosophical idea of natural rights which are considered to exist even when trampled by governments or society; some recognize virtually no difference between the two and regard both as labels for the same thing, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. Natural rights, in particular, are rights of the individual, and are considered beyond the authority of a future government or international body to dismiss. John Locke is perhaps the most prominent philosopher that developed this theory.
  4. 4. The Magna Carta or "Great Charter" was the world's first document containing commitments by a sovereign to his people to respect certain legal rights
  5. 5. The United Nations is the only international entity with jurisdiction for universal human rights legislation. All UN organs have advisory roles to the Security Council. Article 1-3 of the United Nations Charter states "To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion ."
  6. 7. The European Convention on Human Rights defines and guarantees since 1950 human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. All 47 member states of the Council of Europe have signed this Convention and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In order to prevent torture and inhuman or degrading treatment (see Article 3 of the Convention), the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture has been set up.
  7. 8. <ul><li>Human rights commonly include: </li></ul><ul><li>security rights that prohibit crimes such as murder/&quot;enforced&quot; involuntary suicide, massacre, torture and rape </li></ul><ul><li>liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief and religion, association, assembling and movement </li></ul><ul><li>political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, participating in a republic </li></ul><ul><li>due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as arrest and imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishments </li></ul><ul><li>equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law and nondiscrimination </li></ul><ul><li>welfare rights (also known as economic rights) that require the provision of, e.g., education, paid holidays, and protections against severe poverty and starvation </li></ul><ul><li>group rights </li></ul>
  8. 10. Human rights violations <ul><li>A certain race, creed, or group is denied recognition as a &quot;person&quot;. (Articles 2 & 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women are not treated as equal. (Article 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Different racial or religious groups are not treated as equal. (Article 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Life, liberty or security of person is threatened. (Article 3) </li></ul><ul><li>A person is sold as or used as a slave. (Article 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment is used on a person (such as torture or execution). (Article 5) (See also Prisoners' rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of abuse are denied an effective judicial remedy. (Article 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments are dealt arbitrarily or unilaterally, without a proper and fair trial. (Article 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary interference into personal, or private lives by agents of the state. (Article 12) </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens are forbidden to leave or return to their country. (Article 13) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech or religion is denied. (Articles 18 & 19) </li></ul><ul><li>The right to join a trade union is denied. (Article 23) </li></ul><ul><li>Education is denied. (Article 26) </li></ul>Human rights violations are abuses of people in ways that abuse any fundamental human rights. It is a term used when a government violates national or international law related to the protection of human rights. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights fundamental human rights are violated when, among other things:
  9. 11. equality
  10. 12. In over 110 countries National human rights institutions (NHRIs) have been set up to protect, promote or monitor human rights in a given country. There are now over 110 such bodies. Not all of them are compliant with the United Nations advisory standards as set out in the 1993 Paris Principles, but the number and effect of these institutions is increasing.
  11. 13. Human rights organizations International Human Rights Association Amnesty International The International Council on Human Rights Policy Mental Disability Rights International PowerPoint created by Mikael Persson.