Animal nutrition


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Animal nutrition

  1. 1. Animal Nutrition
  2. 2. Need for Nourishment <ul><li>body processes require the use of energy </li></ul><ul><li>obtained from ingested food or stored fat </li></ul><ul><li>animal must have food to store energy in fat cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. Need for Nourishment <ul><li>animals spend most of their time in search of food </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance ration must be met first </li></ul>
  4. 4. Need for Nourishment <ul><li>wild animals eat a variety of foods to obtain proper nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural animals depend on the producer to provide balanced a ration </li></ul>
  5. 5. Feedstuff <ul><li>one component of a feed ration </li></ul><ul><li>not normally fed by itself </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nutrients <ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>protein </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nutrients <ul><li>fats or lipids </li></ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul>
  8. 8. Metabolism <ul><li>all the chemical and physical processes that take place in the body </li></ul>
  9. 9. Metabolism <ul><li>anabolism - metabolism that builds tissue </li></ul><ul><li>catabolism - metabolism that breaks down materials </li></ul>
  10. 10. Water <ul><li>most abundant compound in the world </li></ul><ul><li>animals must have frequent intakes of water to remain alive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Water <ul><li>provides basis for all of the fluid of the animals body </li></ul><ul><li>bloodstream requires liquid for circulation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Water <ul><li>digestion requires moisture for breakdown of nutrients and movement of feed </li></ul><ul><li>needed to produce milk </li></ul>
  13. 13. Water <ul><li>provides cells with pressure to allow them to hold their shape </li></ul><ul><li>helps body to maintain constant temperature </li></ul>
  14. 14. Water <ul><li>flushes the animal’s body of waste and toxic materials </li></ul><ul><li>a loss of 20% of body water will result in death </li></ul>
  15. 15. Water <ul><li>animals generally need about three pounds of water for every pound of solid feed they consume </li></ul>
  16. 16. Protein <ul><li>largest and most costly part of the ration </li></ul><ul><li>composed of amino acids </li></ul>
  17. 17. Amino Acids <ul><li>building blocks of life </li></ul><ul><li>tissue development </li></ul><ul><li>muscle production </li></ul>
  18. 18. Protein <ul><li>enzymes are composed of protein </li></ul><ul><li>protein can be used to supply energy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Protein <ul><li>some animals need more protein than others </li></ul><ul><li>young animals </li></ul><ul><li>lactating (milk producing) animals </li></ul>
  20. 20. Protein <ul><li>twenty three types of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>ten essential </li></ul><ul><li>thirteen nonessential </li></ul>
  21. 21. Protein <ul><li>crude protein content </li></ul><ul><li>total amount of protein in a feed </li></ul><ul><li>calculated by multiplying nitrogen content percentage times 6.25 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Protein <ul><li>digestible protein </li></ul><ul><li>the protein in a feed that can be digested and used by the animal </li></ul><ul><li>usually about 50-80% of crude protein </li></ul>
  23. 23. Protein <ul><li>protein sources </li></ul><ul><li>animal </li></ul><ul><li>slaughterhouse by products </li></ul><ul><li>dried fish meal </li></ul>
  24. 24. Protein <ul><li>plant </li></ul><ul><li>superior to animal sources </li></ul><ul><li>cottonseed meal </li></ul><ul><li>soybean meal, linseed meal </li></ul><ul><li>peanut meal, corn meal </li></ul>
  25. 25. Protein <ul><li>balancing rations is based on the amino acid content </li></ul>
  26. 26. Carbohydrates <ul><li>main source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>include sugars, starches and cellulose </li></ul>
  27. 27. Carbohydrates <ul><li>almost all come from plants </li></ul><ul><li>generally found in grain </li></ul><ul><li>wheat </li></ul><ul><li>oats </li></ul><ul><li>barley </li></ul>
  28. 28. Carbohydrates <ul><li>types of sugars </li></ul><ul><li>monosaccharides - simple sugars </li></ul><ul><li>glucose </li></ul><ul><li>fructose, galactose </li></ul>
  29. 29. Carbohydrates <ul><li>disaccharides - complex sugars </li></ul><ul><li>sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>lactose </li></ul>
  30. 30. Fats <ul><li>group of organic compounds known as lipids </li></ul><ul><li>found in plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>provide and store energy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Fats <ul><li>essential fatty acids: necessary for production of some hormones and hormone like substances </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fats <ul><li>most important sources are the grains that contain oil </li></ul>
  33. 33. Minerals <ul><li>inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>have role in providing structural support for the animal </li></ul><ul><li>bones (calcium and phosphorous) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Minerals <ul><li>egg shells (calcium) </li></ul><ul><li>other essential needs provided by minerals </li></ul><ul><li>aid in construction of muscles, blood cells, internal organs and enzymes </li></ul>
  35. 35. Minerals <ul><li>mineral elements required </li></ul><ul><li>macro - 7 </li></ul><ul><li>micro - 9 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Minerals <ul><li>usually added to feed in their chemical form </li></ul><ul><li>often fed free choice </li></ul><ul><li>mineral ox or trough </li></ul><ul><li>salt block </li></ul>
  37. 37. Vitamins <ul><li>considered micronutrients </li></ul><ul><li>essential for the development of normal body processes </li></ul>
  38. 38. Vitamins <ul><li>health </li></ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul>
  39. 39. Vitamins <ul><li>provides animal with ability to fight stress, disease, and to maintain good health </li></ul>
  40. 40. Vitamin A <ul><li>fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>converted from carotene </li></ul>
  41. 41. Vitamin D <ul><li>fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>depends on ultraviolet light for synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>can be made commercially from irradiated yeast </li></ul>
  42. 42. Vitamin E <ul><li>fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>found in several forms of the organic compound tocopherol </li></ul>
  43. 43. Vitamin K <ul><li>fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>utilized to form the enzyme prothrombin </li></ul><ul><li>synthesized in rumen and monogastric intestinal tract </li></ul>
  44. 44. Vitamins <ul><li>thiamine: coenzyme in energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>riboflavin: part of two coenzymes that function in energy and protein metabolism </li></ul>
  45. 45. Vitamins <ul><li>pantothenic acid: component of coenzyme A </li></ul><ul><li>niacin: involved in metabolism of far, carbs and proteins </li></ul>
  46. 46. Vitamins <ul><li>pyridoxine: coenzyme component </li></ul><ul><li>biotin: part of enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis </li></ul>
  47. 47. Vitamins <ul><li>folic acid: needed in body cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>choline: component of fats and nerve tissues </li></ul><ul><li>needed at greater levels than other vitamins </li></ul>
  48. 48. Vitamins <ul><li>B12: coenzyme in several metabolic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>essential part of red blood cell maturation </li></ul>
  49. 49. Vitamins <ul><li>inositol: found in all feeds and synthesized in the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA): function no well known </li></ul>
  50. 50. Vitamins <ul><li>C: essential in the formation of collagen </li></ul>
  51. 51. Digestion <ul><li>nutrients are converted to a form that the cells can use </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients are transported by digestive system </li></ul>
  52. 52. Digestion <ul><li>gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>organs that make up the digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>also referred to as the alimentary canal </li></ul>
  53. 53. Monogastric system <ul><li>has only one compartment to the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>process goes through the: </li></ul><ul><li>mouth </li></ul><ul><li>esophagus </li></ul>
  54. 54. Monogastric system <ul><li>stomach </li></ul><ul><li>small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, ileum </li></ul>
  55. 55. Monogastric system <ul><li>large intestine: cecum, colon, rectum </li></ul>
  56. 56. Monogastric system <ul><li>humans </li></ul><ul><li>dogs </li></ul><ul><li>cats </li></ul><ul><li>horses </li></ul>
  57. 57. Ruminant system <ul><li>multicompartment stomach </li></ul><ul><li>ruminant animals are often called “cud chewers” </li></ul><ul><li>no upper front teeth in ruminant mouth </li></ul>
  58. 58. Ruminant system <ul><li>no enzymes in the saliva </li></ul><ul><li>examples of ruminant animals: </li></ul><ul><li>cows, sheep, goats </li></ul>
  59. 59. Rumen Compartments <ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>has appearance of a honeycomb </li></ul>
  60. 60. Reticulum <ul><li>traps dangerous objects and prevents them from proceeding through the rest of the tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Called hardware disease: cow eats wire, nails, staples </li></ul>
  61. 61. Reticulum <ul><li>stores, sorts, and moves feed back to the esophagus for regurgitation (throwing up) </li></ul>
  62. 62. Rumen <ul><li>functions as a storage vat </li></ul><ul><li>food is soaked, mixed, and fermented </li></ul>
  63. 63. Rumen <ul><li>some absorption of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>some breakdown of feed through microbial action </li></ul>
  64. 64. Omasum <ul><li>grinds roughage </li></ul>
  65. 65. Abomasum <ul><li>only true stomach </li></ul><ul><li>functions similarly to a monogastric stomach </li></ul>