Airworthiness

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Airworthiness

  1. 1. 141 SEMINAR <ul><li>Review of Part 91 and Part 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Inoperative Equipment: Placarding and MEL Options </li></ul><ul><li>Part 141 Maintenance Rules </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>PRIVATE PILOT PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. PRIVATE PILOT PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS <ul><li>A. TASK: CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>2. Locating and Explaining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Airworthiness and Registration Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Operating Limitations, placards, instrument markings, and POH/AFM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Weight and Balance Data and equipment list </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. PRIVATE PILOT PRACTICAL TEST STANDARDS <ul><li>B. TASK: AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Explaining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Instruments & Equipment for day/night VFR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Procedures and limitations for determining airworthiness of the airplane with and without an MEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Requirements and Procedures for a Special Flight permit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Locating and explaining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Airworthiness directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Compliance records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Maintenance/inspection requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Appropriate airworthiness and maintenance recordkeeping. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How do Students learn about airworthiness and aviation maintenance practices? <ul><li>From the formal course of study </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do Students learn about airworthiness and aviation maintenance practices? <ul><li>By observing the school’s compliance culture as demonstrated by its actual operations and practices, and in its written and unwritten procedures. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How do Students learn about airworthiness and aviation maintenance practices? <ul><li>By the example of their instructor’s compliance-ethics and practices. </li></ul>
  8. 8. REVIEW <ul><li>Part 91 Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Airworthy Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Reqmts. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Record Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Part 43 Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Persons Authorized to Perform & Approve </li></ul><ul><li>Approval for Return to Service </li></ul><ul><li>Un-resolved Maint. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance rules </li></ul>
  9. 9. DEFINITIONS: FAR 1 <ul><li>&quot; Person &quot; means an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or governmental entity. It includes a trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative of any of them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DEFINITIONS: FAR 1 <ul><li>“ Operate” with respect to aircraft, means use , cause to use or authorize to use aircraft, for the purpose (except as provided in Sec. 91.13 of this chapter) of air navigation including the piloting of aircraft, wìth or without the right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise). </li></ul>
  11. 11. DEFINITIONS: FAR 1 <ul><li>“ Maintenance” means inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation, and the replacement of parts, but excludes preventive maintenance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PART 91 APPLICABILITY <ul><li>Applies to Owners and Operators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No person may” “The Owner or Operator shall” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applies to Pilots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No person may operate, a crewmember shall, no pilot in command may, each pilot in command shall” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. §91.7 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness <ul><li>No person may operate unless: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airworthy Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PIC determines whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PIC shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What is the meaning of AIRWORTHY ? <ul><li>Two Conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Conforms to Type Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attained when required and proper components are installed, and they are consistent with drawings, specifications, and other data that are part of the type certificate, including Supplemental Type Certificate and field-approved alterations. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What is the meaning of AIRWORTHY ? (continued) <ul><li>2. The aircraft is in a Condition for Safe Operation </li></ul><ul><li>This refers to the condition of the aircraft with relation to wear and deterioration </li></ul>
  16. 16. §91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements <ul><li>No person may operate a civil aircraft [in a manner contrary to]  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved manual material, markings, and placards, or any combination thereof.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Aircraft [must be] identified IAW FAR 45 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. §91.203 Civil aircraft: Certifications required <ul><ul><li>No person may operate without </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate and current airworthiness certificate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An effective U.S. registration certificate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airworthiness Certificate is displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18.
  19. 19. <ul><li>6. TERMS AND CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless sooner surrendered, suspended, revoked, or a termination date is otherwise established by the Administrator, this Airworthiness Certificate is effective as long as the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 21, 43, and 91of the Federal Aviation Regulations, as appropriate, and the aircraft is registered in the United States. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 91 SUBPART C EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENT, REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>§91.205 Instrument and equipment requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>§91.207 Emergency Locator Transmitters (includes annual inspection requirements) </li></ul><ul><li>§91.209 Aircraft lights </li></ul><ul><li>§91.211 Supplemental oxygen. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 91 SUBPART C EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENT, AND CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>§91.213 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>§91.215 ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>§91.403 General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations on an aircraft …other than as prescribed in this subpart and other applicable regulations, including part 43 of this chapter </li></ul></ul>91 SUBPART E MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, AND ALTERATIONS
  23. 23. §91.405 Maintenance is required <ul><li>Each Owner or Operator of an aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall have that aircraft inspected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall have discrepancies repaired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been Approved for Return to Service </li></ul><ul><li>(only the owner/operator knows what the record looks like) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Part 43 Approval for Return to Service ? <ul><li>§43.9 Content, form, and disposition of … records </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Each Person who performs… shall make an entry containing the following information: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) A description of the work performed. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The date of completion </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The name of the person performing </li></ul><ul><li>If the work has been performed satisfactorily, the signature , certificate number , and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work. </li></ul><ul><li>The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed. </li></ul>
  25. 25. §91.405 Maintenance required (continued) <ul><li>Permitted inoperative instrument or equipment must be repaired, replaced, removed, or inspected at the next required inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Inoperative instruments or equipment must be placarded as required by §43.11 </li></ul>
  26. 26. § 91.407(a) Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuiding, or alteration <ul><li>No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved for Return to Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance record entry, 43.9 or 43.11 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. § 91.407(b) Operational Check Flight <ul><li>Operational Check Flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When: Appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How : Pilot flies, makes an operational check, logs the flight in the aircraft records. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) If ground tests, etc., confirm proper operation, no flight check is required (CAUTION: see rule for details). </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. §91.409 Inspections <ul><li>No person may operate an aircraft Unless: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Annual Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and current 100-Hour or Annual Inspection (if for hire or flight instruction for hire) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Flight Permit, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AAIP under 135 or 125, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Inspection, or Inspection Program under 409(e), or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly certificated aircraft </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 91 SUBPART E Other Inspections <ul><li>§91.411 Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections. For IFR flight. (AFRTS includes Maximum Altitude Tested) </li></ul><ul><li>§91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections. Current inspection before use. </li></ul><ul><li>Reminder: One more obligation— </li></ul>
  30. 30. 91 SUBPART A GENERAL <ul><li>Preflight: </li></ul><ul><li>91.7(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. </li></ul><ul><li>91.7(b) The Pilot in Command is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in a condition for safe operation. </li></ul>
  31. 31. § 91.417 MAINTENANCE RECORDS <ul><li>Two Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Records that must be transferred with ownership. [& method of transfer] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records that only need to be kept for one year or until superceded. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry norms and FAA rules about records. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Part 43 MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION <ul><li>§ 43.1 Applicability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft with a US Airworthiness Certificate </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. § 43.3 Persons Authorized to Perform <ul><li>Preventive Maintenance ( as defined in Part 43 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificated Pilot— only on aircraft owned or operated by that pilot that are not on an air carrier certificate . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor repairs, 100-Hour inspections, Annual Inspections, Major Repairs, Major Alterations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificated Mechanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificated Mechanic with IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificated Repair Stations & Repairmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly supervised persons </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. §43.5 Approval for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration <ul><li>No person may approve … unless -- </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The maintenance record entry required by §43.9 or §43.11, as appropriate, has been made; and if Major </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The repair or alteration form authorized by or furnished by the Administrator [Form 337] has been executed in a manner prescribed by the Administrator; and </li></ul>
  35. 35. §43.5 Approval for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration (continued) <ul><li>(c) If a repair or an alteration results in any change in the aircraft operating limitations or flight data contained in the approved aircraft flight manual, those operating limitations or flight data are appropriately revised and set forth as prescribed in §91.9 of this chapter. </li></ul>
  36. 36. §43.7 Persons authorized to approve… <ul><li>Preventive Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private pilot (at least), but not on air carrier aircraft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor maintenance, 100 hour inspections, certain other inspections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The holder of a mechanic certificate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual Inspections, Major Repairs, Major Alterations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The holder of a mechanic certificate with Inspection Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A repair station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain holders of an air carrier operating certificates (CAMP) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. §43.9 Content, form, and disposition of … records (except inspections …) <ul><li>(a) Each person who performs… shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) A description (or acceptable reference) of the work </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The date of completion of the work </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The name of the person performing the work </li></ul><ul><li>(4) If satisfactorily performed, the signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work. </li></ul><ul><li>The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition , major repairs and major alterations shall be entered on a form, and the form disposed of, in the manner prescribed in appendix B, by the person performing the work. </li></ul>
  38. 38. §43.11 Records for inspections… <ul><ul><li>(a) The person approving or disapproving for return to service after any inspection … shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) The type of inspection and a brief description of the extent of the inspection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) The date of the inspection and aircraft total time in service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) The signature, the certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving or disapproving for return to service …(continued) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. §43.11 Records for inspections… <ul><ul><li>(4) If the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the following or a similarly worded statement – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined to be in airworthy condition.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) If the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed maintenance, noncompliance with applicable specifications, airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a similarly worded statement -- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for the aircraft owner or operator.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. §43.11(b) UN-RESOLVED INSPECTION FINDINGS <ul><ul><li>If the aircraft is unairworthy … the responsible maintenance person must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated list discrepancies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For items permitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2), the responsible maintenance person shall place a suitable placard …, marking it &quot;Inoperative,&quot; and shall include the items in the signed and dated list of discrepancies given to the owner or lessee. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. §43.13 Performance Rules (general). <ul><li>(a) Each person shall </li></ul><ul><li>Use the methods, techniques, and practices prescribed in the Current manufacturer's maintenance manual or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable Instructions for Continued Airworthiness, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other acceptable methods, techniques, and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow accepted industry practices for use of tools, equipment, and test apparatus necessary to assure completion of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Use special equipment or test apparatus recommended by the manufacturer or its equivalent acceptable to the Administrator . </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The Quality of workmanship and materials must ensure that the article is at least equal to its original or properly altered condition . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Part 91 and 43 Summary <ul><li>Part 91 Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Airworthy Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Reqmts </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Record Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Part 43 Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Persons Authorized to Perform & Approve </li></ul><ul><li>Approval for Return to Service </li></ul><ul><li>Un-resolved Maint. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance rules </li></ul>

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