Marta y Susana

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Marta y Susana

  1. 1. LACK OF A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK IN CALL MATERIALS
  2. 2. Lack of a theoretical framework <ul><li>Lack of guidelines for CALL materials </li></ul><ul><li>Result : Teachers don’t have a conceptual framework to guide their work </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons : Producers are divided in groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Kemmis (1977): Some producers base materials on practice , others on research </li></ul><ul><li>Ginsberg (1988): Some producers interested in solving problems using theory , others writing programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. THEORY: A POINT OF DEPARTURE <ul><li>Material producers use different theories: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Psychology: Cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second Language Acquisition theories </li></ul><ul><li>3. Comprehension-based models of SLA </li></ul><ul><li>4. Theories of language </li></ul><ul><li>5. Theories of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>6. Integrate framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional design </li></ul><ul><li>Language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. NO THEORY ORIENTED MATERIAL PRODUCERS <ul><li>Are determined by conditions that govern the practice and the problems arising </li></ul><ul><li>In other words: Oriented by student needs or specific language problems </li></ul>
  5. 5. INVESTIGATING CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS AND WORKING METHODS <ul><li>Very little has been investigated </li></ul><ul><li>Very interesting: how teachers become CALL authors by </li></ul><ul><li>1. Objectifying their knowledge domains </li></ul><ul><li>2. Conceptualizing learning materials for transfer to CALL materials </li></ul><ul><li>3. Achieving this transfer </li></ul>
  6. 6. AIMS OF THIS BOOK <ul><li>Shed light on the nature of the problem and improve our understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The scope of CALL </li></ul><ul><li>2. The theoretical frameworks of CALL authors </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gaps between theory and practice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interdisciplinary perspective <ul><li>Computing and language learning fields </li></ul><ul><li>Other fields such as: psychology, artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, instructional design and human-computer interaction. </li></ul>Because of this lack of theoretical framework, we can draw on theories of other disciplines. CALL is influenced by other disciplines:
  8. 8. Interdisciplinary perspective <ul><li>- Many of them are new (since WWII). So we do not know yet how their frameworks have influenced the development of CALL </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship with other fields is not clear. Some writers have related it with Applied Linguistics; others challenge this view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) CALL is not only learning with the help of computers: the complexity of CALL makes impossible put it into a simple framework . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b) A theory of a non-CALL discipline shouldn’t be used to explain CALL (unless it is so well articulated to be applicable to CALL context) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Interdisciplinary perspective <ul><li>In order to know the relationship between theory and practice to get a framework, we must review CALL projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL materials and programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The authors teaching methods and what are their theories of language teaching. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Historical perspective <ul><li>1.Think about topics such as the role of the teacher in CALL </li></ul><ul><li>2. Notice that multimedia is not so new as we thought (it has been available since 70's: when the TICCIT project started) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Know the relationship between approaches and computing: </li></ul>Can help us to provide a context for CALL. It is useful to
  11. 11. Historical perspective <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar translation method: drills easy to program. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Communicative approach; there are more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of tasks and they are more complex. </li></ul></ul>

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