Yaron Ariel Ao Ir


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Yaron Ariel Ao Ir

  1. 1. Web Site Interactivity & Gratifications Expectations among Users Presented at the AoIR5 Conference University of Sussex, U.K 20, September 2004 Yaron Ariel University of Haifa
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses and Gratifications a relevancy approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U&G basic assumptions & criticisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Gratification Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites’ Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations towards Web sites’ interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some research evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some implications </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Uses and Gratifications - Relevancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant in Users/Audience studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human centered approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-mentioned when new media develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Bulletin Board, Pager, Interactive TV, Cellular phone, ICQ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New media & its various uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Media Vs New Media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>U&G Assumptions & Criticisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are active & rational players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using the media in order to obtain gratifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Katz, Blumler & Gurevitch, 1974) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Criticisms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of rationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or maybe Habitual, Ritual, Normative? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal oriented towards fulfillments and growth? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categorization as status quo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspective Capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can they really tell us? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Expectations towards traditional media </li></ul><ul><li>Genres conventions </li></ul><ul><li>(Content, Style & Form ) </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations towards </li></ul><ul><li>Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalities </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Differentiate Sought & Obtained gratification (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 1982) Emphasizing Expectancy Towards what? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Gratification Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A persons' belief that using a web site can fulfill specific voids in his/her life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Gratification Expectancy Escapist Integrative Cognitive Emotional
  7. 7. <ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various definitions of Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rafaeli’s Definitions of Interactivity (Rafaeli, 1988) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>characteristic of communication settings not the medium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizing the interaction between users </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considering levels of interactivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A functionality that facilitates users' expectations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Web sites interactivity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Interactivity operationalized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three identical news-portal ‘look-alike’ web-sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Except - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No feature of message transmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes an Electronic Forum within. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a Synchronic chat. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does & to what extent the interactivity that Web Sites enabled their users is relating to their expectations gratifications? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H1 Positive correlation between the level of Web Sites' interactivity & the level of EG’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H2 Significant difference between users' experience level within their level of EG’s along levels of interactivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H3 Positive correlation between any individual EG to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Variables: Socio-Demographic, Usages characteristics & attitude towards internet] </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample of 464 participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non representative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal codes with web address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likert scale statements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic differential </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High gratifications expectations in all three sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High to low expectancy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive, Integrative, Escapist & Emotional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced users Vs Whole Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy ----Web experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gratifications Expectancies are highly correlated </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>More Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have higher GE’s as compared to men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income, Martial status, Education -no impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General positive attitude toward the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher gratification expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>[Using logistic regression] </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Discussions & Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine Subjective expectations & perception of gratifications . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study Medium functionalities - rather than studying its conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web user's usages relate characteristics -rather than other personal factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectations gratifications are in the beholders eyes </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Http://com.haifa.ac.il/~yariel </li></ul><ul><li>Yaron Ariel </li></ul><ul><li>University of Haifa </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Ebersole, S. (2000). &quot;Uses and Gratification of the Web among students&quot;. JCMC . 6(1) </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Heeter, C. (1989). Implications of new interactive technologies for conceptualizing communication. In: J. L. Salvaggio., J. Bryant (Eds.). Media use in the information age: Emerging patterns of adoption and consumer use . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum </li></ul><ul><li>Kang, M.H. (2002). &quot;Interactivity in television: use and impact of an interactive program guide&quot;. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media . 46(3), 330- 316 </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Katz, E., Blumler, J.G., Gurevitch, M. (1973). &quot;Uses and Gratifications research&quot;. Public Opinion Quarterly . 37(4), 509-523 </li></ul><ul><li>Kwasnik, H.B., Crowston, K., Nilan, M., Roussinov, D. (2001). &quot;Identifying document genre to improve Web search effectiveness&quot;. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology . 27(2) </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Leung, Louis & Wei, R (1998). &quot;The gratifications of pager use: Sociability, information seeking, entertainment, utility, and fashion and status&quot; Telematics and Infomatics , 15(4): 253-264. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Leung, L., Wei, R (2000). &quot;More than just talk on the move: Uses and Gratifications of cellular phone&quot;. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly . 77(2): 308-320. </li></ul><ul><li>Liebes, T. (2003). &quot;Herzog's &quot;On borrowed experience&quot;: Its place in the debate over the active audience&quot;. In: Katz, E., Peters, D.J., Liebes, T., Orloff, A. (Eds.). Canonic texts in media research: Are there any? Should there be? How about these? Cambridge: Polity Press & Blackwell Publishing </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Lin, A. C. (2002). &quot;Perceived gratifications of online media service use among potential users&quot;. Telematics and Informatics . 19(1), 3-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Livaditi, J., Vassilopoulou, K., Lougos, C., Chorianopoulos, K. (2002). &quot;Needs and Gratifications for interactive TV application: Implications for designers&quot;. Presented at the 36th Hawaii international Conference on System Sciences </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Luo, X. (2002). &quot;Uses and Gratifications theory and E-consumer behaviors: A structural equation modeling study&quot;. Journal of Interactive Advertising . 2(2) </li></ul><ul><li>Palmgreen, P., Rayburn, J.D. (1982). &quot;Gratifications sought and media exposure: an expectancy model&quot;. Communication research . 9(4), 561-580 </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Rafaeli, S. (1988).&quot;Interactivity: From new media to communication&quot;. In: Sage Annual Review of Communication Research: Advancing Communication Science, Vol. 16 . R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann., S. Pingree. (Eds). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage </li></ul><ul><li>Rafaeli, S., Sudweeks, F. (1997). &quot;Networked Interactivity&quot; Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 2(4) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Ruggiero, E. T. (2000). &quot;Uses and gratification theory in the 21st century&quot;. Mass Communication & Society . 3(1), 3-37 </li></ul><ul><li>Schultz, T. (2000). &quot;Mass Media and the concept of interactivity: An exploratory study of online Forums and reader E-Mail&quot;. Media, Culture & Society. 22 (2), 205-221 </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Sherry, J., Lucas, K., Rechtsteiner, S., Brooks, C., Wilson, B. (2001). &quot;Video Game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference&quot;. Paper presented at the ICA convention May 2001 </li></ul>