Workshop On Management Of Intellectual Property By Photographers


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  • Workshop On Management Of Intellectual Property By Photographers

    1. 1. Workshop on Management of Intellectual Property by Photographers Beijing, China, December 8 and 9, 2005
    2. 2. The Business of Photography Part 1 : Marketing Photography and the Role of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Lien Verbauwhede </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant, SMEs Division </li></ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) </li></ul>
    4. 4. From agent to buyer <ul><li>Old days : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>getting photos to wide public was costly and time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most photographers needed to rely on employers or agencies to do sales for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital photography & Internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows to produce a lot of good quality images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows photographers to market and sell directly to the buyer </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Consequence of Internet: </li></ul><ul><li>Getting noticed among the “noise” of images that buyers see  marketing has become leading competitive tool </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing itself has also changed </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Type of marketing method will depend on personal business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignments (travel outfitters, marriage, portraits, fashion, business, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>market your services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mouth-to-mouth; reputation; local market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock photography (licensing images for commercial use or print orders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>market your pictures - marketable pictures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reach the large public; worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OnRequest Images </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 1. First find your market, then create
    9. 9. Rohn Eng: The Buyers Are Waiting <ul><li>But: they need to know you exist </li></ul><ul><li>You need to supply them what they need + at the time they need it </li></ul>How to market your business? How to find your market?
    10. 10. Who are the buyers? <ul><li>Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>wedding </li></ul><ul><li>business </li></ul><ul><li>fashion </li></ul><ul><li>travel </li></ul><ul><li>portraits </li></ul><ul><li>ad agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Stock </li></ul><ul><li>photography </li></ul><ul><li>book publishers & magazines </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>stock photo agencies </li></ul><ul><li>paper product companies </li></ul><ul><li>ad agencies, web designers, graphic design studios, et </li></ul><ul><li>art photography sales </li></ul>
    11. 11. Stock Photography: Marketable pictures <ul><li>Good picture is not always marketable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to market on your own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell only once in a while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place in stock agenccy </li></ul></ul>What do they need? <ul><li>Marketable picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sells and resells and resells … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra income at retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes over to your heirs </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>How to create marketable pictures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express single idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involved in some activity (doing or observing something) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not posed portraits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>showing enjoyment, unhappiness, fear, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>model release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brings certain idea to mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tractor, pilot’s uniform, fishing pole, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>Source : Rohn Engh, Sell and Re-sell your Photos, 2003
    13. 13. 2. Become a monopoly
    14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find yourself: determine what you love </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>animals, adventure, fashion, sports, etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And find buyers who need it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More chance that buyers will target their search </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 3. Target your audience
    16. 16. <ul><li>Cfr your specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Build personalized market list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories: Photographer’s Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet search engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrow down your market list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing power, etc </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 4. Customize to your clients
    18. 18. <ul><li>Give what the customer exactly needs to see </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artsy images, showing your skills with camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images that demonstrate you know to address real-world client needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just showing you are out there (famous) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand how customer makes choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passions, social background, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity </li></ul>
    19. 19. 5. Choose your marketing model
    20. 20. <ul><li>Traditional (off-line) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You may loose business opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look unprofessional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital (online) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply as business card or portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Picture of the month + contacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform to sell online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stock photography </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Own website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If many marketable pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create yourself? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsource web development: ownership? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking, using other’s copyright material, choosing DN, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Join existing websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to design website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit from other’s reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: search engines usually do not index such sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: some sites do not allow to sell pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: customer service in hands of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: fee </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 6. Choose a good domain name … and USE it !
    23. 23. <ul><li>Easy to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>your name, unless difficult to read and spell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No trademark conflict </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Use wherever possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advertising, watermarks, copyright information, business cards, stationary, invoices, emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website should be part of your signature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask others to use it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you license photos, request clients to link back to your website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you participate in photo reviews </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Make sure people find your website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact search engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 7. Choose a good trademark or logo … and USE it !
    27. 27. <ul><li>A distinctive sign : distinguishes your goods or services from those of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive rights : To prevent others from using identical or similar marks on identical or similar goods </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable indefinitely ! </li></ul><ul><li>Registration is required in most countries </li></ul>What is a trademark?
    28. 28. <ul><li>Distinctive logo or design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common error: obvious logo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>camera, tripod, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt it to make it unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with your specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and easy to remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. “Windigo” (Wendy – windsurfing) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Trademark search </li></ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul><ul><li>Use it! </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate that it is protected: ® or TM </li></ul><ul><li>Can help your correspondence to start looking familiar </li></ul>
    30. 30. 8. Place a copyright notice
    31. 31. <ul><li>No legal obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning to infringers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information who owns the rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some countries: requirement to get compensation for certain damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require others to include notice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers, agencies, licensees, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also electronically </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 9. If you join existing website, choose carefully
    33. 33. <ul><li>(a) Photo-forum websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have your images onto their website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally not possible to sell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No need to build own website </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit from their goodwill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forums: interaction with other photographers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many photographers: buyers not likely to find yours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>(b) Websites that allow sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload your photos and set your own prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>don’t need to build a website </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No part of ordering, printing an delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Editing criteria: paper size, style, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer service not in your hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines rarely index such sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>(c) Stock agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic number (ranking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance fees & royaltie split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long term or short term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Royalties vary from 10 – 90% of sales price </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big libraries: Getty Images, Corbis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small, specialized agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><ul><li>How many photographers do they take </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where are you in the ranking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing strenghts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can they make your images more visible to a target market segment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(beware of agencies that ask fee for promotion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they have royalty-free work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you opt out? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they demand exclusivity over your work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of contract </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 10. Provide big images online
    38. 38. <ul><li>Big images encourage longer visits, more page views, more interest …so more business </li></ul><ul><li>High resolution: risk of ‘stealing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Low resolution: less attractive + risk to loose opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Big enough to see in detail, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but nothing that could be copied for print use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* If client asks higher resolution: watermark </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. CONCLUSIONS
    40. 40. <ul><li>A photographer’s contribution doesn’t start and end with “taking pictures”. </li></ul><ul><li>A good marketing strategy shows all assets: that is, photography + business sense </li></ul>
    41. 41. Thank You for your Attention. WIPO’s website for SMEs :