The History of War Photography Website created by Paige Ozaroski
World War II Desert Storm Vietnam War Afghanistan Operation Iraqi Freedom Home War Histories and Photographs… Rick Loomis – L.A. Times Iraqi – as close to peaceful as we’ve seen… Sources
World War II <ul><li>History and coverage of the war: This war served as a beginning for many female journalists in covering war. Women did cover the Civil War and World War I, but it wasn’t until World War II that the number of female photographers grew dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable photographer during this war: Margaret Bourke-White. </li></ul><ul><li>About Bourke-White: In 1935, she was hired by Life magazine. Bourke-White covered the London Blitz, the Russian war effort, and various World War II battles, and was permitted to work in combat zones during WWII. She served as the “first” for many experiences… </li></ul><ul><li>- She was Life Magazine’s female photojournalist </li></ul><ul><li>- She was the first female American war correspondent. </li></ul><ul><li>- She also was one of the first photographers to enter and document </li></ul><ul><li>the Nazi Death Camps. </li></ul>Photos
Joe Rosenthal - "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima,” taken on February 23, 1945. U.S. Marines raised a United States flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jim. Margaret Bourke-White - Half-starved, emaciated male prisoners behind barbed wire fence, staring vacantly into space at Buchenwald concentration camp during liberation by American forces. Back to index page … Joe Rosenthal - a marine advancing toward the corpses of two fellow soldiers at Iwo Jima on 19th February, 1945. W. Eugene Smith - Marine Demolition Team Blasting Out a Cave on Hill 382. Iwo Jima, 1945
Vietnam <ul><li>History and coverage of the war: Many images from this war were published in LIFE magazine. The Vietnam war was an easier war to cover as far as access, and journalists were allowed close up access and could associate with the soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable photographer during this war: Larry Burrows </li></ul><ul><li>About Burrows: He worked for Life magazine for 9 years. On February 10, 1971, at age 44, he lost his life while on the job. He was in a helicopter, covering the invasion of Laos by the South Vietnamese army, when the helicopter went down over the Ho Chi Minh Trail. </li></ul>Photos
Larry Burrows - Khesanh, South Vietnam, 1968: A helicopter airlifts ammunition to U.S. troops attempting to break the North Vietnamese siege of Khesanh. Larry Burrows - South Vietnamese troops with Vietcong captives, Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1962. Larry Burrows - A napalm strike in Nha Trang, South Vietnam, 1962. Back to index page … Eddie Adams - Execution of a Viet Cong Guerrilla, 1968
Desert Storm <ul><li>History and coverage of the war: This war, which was called “The Gulf War” by the media, was very difficult for journalists to cover. There was often strong tension between the government and the media. Press pools were formed, and only about 100 photographers were allowed access into the war zone. These select journalists were only let in to cover these conflicts with a military escort. Journalist’s work could be sent to the government for censorship before they were able to publish it, which often took a long time, considering that these journalists wanted their readers and viewers back in the U.S. to get the information in a timely fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable photographer during this war: Peter Turnley </li></ul><ul><li>About Turnley: Born in 1955, Turnley’s photographs have appeared on over 40 Newsweek covers, as well as magazine like Vanity Fair, and The New York Times Magazine. He has photographed many world conflicts in places such as: Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, South Africa, Chechnya, Haiti, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Kosovo, the Gulf War (1991), the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and most recently, Iraq. </li></ul>Photos
Peter Turnley - A U.S. soldier helps support an injured Iraqi soldier as a large group of Iraqi soldiers are taken prisoner by the Allied Forces at the end of the Gulf ground War. This scene was very near the Mile of Death north of Kuwait City. An American soldier examines a weapon, among many taken from Iraqi prisoners at the end of the Gulf Ground War. This scene was very near the Mile of Death. Peter Turnley - Before the beginning of the Gulf War, shortly after Iraq invaded Kuwait, thousands of immigrant workers working in Kuwait, became refugees in the desert between Iraq and Amman and found themselves living in dire conditions. David Turnley (Detroit Free Press) - Sgt. Ken Kozakiewicz, as he realizes that the soldier’s body that was just brought into the helicopter in a zippered bag, was a good friend of his. Back to index page …
Afghanistan <ul><li>History and coverage of the war: At the time of this war, the digital age was up and coming, thankfully, because there was no place to process film in that area during war time. This was the first war in which digital equipment was regularly used. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable photographer during this war: Alexandra Boulat </li></ul><ul><li>About Boulat: Born in Paris in 1962, Boulat studied fine arts and art history at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in Paris. The conflicts she has covered include those in Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Iraq, and the conflicts in Afghanistan. She is also the founding photographer of the photo agency VII . Her work has been published in magazines such as National Geographic, Time, Newsweek, Paris Match, and Geo. </li></ul>Photos
Back to index page … Jockel Finck - The barrage of cruise missiles over Afghanistan, as U.S. fighter planes targeted Taliban military installations and Al Qaeda sanctuaries. Rabih Moghrabi - A crew member of USS Enterprise prepares a bomb which reads for the Pentagon and the USA before the launch against Afghanistan. Alexandra Boulat - October 2001 - Pakistani women pray during an anti American demonstration in downtown Quetta. Said Mohammed - Evidence of war: Afghans gather to look at the debris from the Afghan Technical Consultants offices in Kabul after it was hit by American cruise missiles.
Operation Iraqi Freedom <ul><li>Operation Iraqi Freedom: This war is being covered in a style that hasn’t been seen since Vietnam. The press has been allowed more access and close-up interaction, and some have even been imbedded with the troops. Covering this war has also become more efficient with the increased use of digital equipment, and photos can be transmitted almost instantly. Many representatives from major newspapers have said that their staff is now shooting only using digital equipment. "Today, the quality of digital photography has gotten so good that everybody’s gone digital. It’s fast, economical, and lets you transmit instantly instead of sending your film on a two-week safari to the Saudi Desert,” says Brian Storm, vice president of news and editorial photography at Corbis. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable photographer during this war: James Nachtwey </li></ul><ul><li>About Nachtwey: A graduate of Dartmouth college, Nachtwey worked with Time magazine since 1984 as a contract photographer. On December 10, 2003, while covering the war in Iraq, Nachtwey was injured in a grenade attack in Baghdad. </li></ul>Photos
<ul><li>James Nachtwey - March 2003, Government buildings in Baghdad are attacked by American missiles during the third </li></ul><ul><li>night of the U.S.-led war against the regime of Saddam Hussein. </li></ul>Back to index page … James Nachtwey - March 2003, Iraqi soldiers and police fire into the reeds at the edge of the Tigris River in Baghdad as they search for what they thought was a downed American pilot. James Nachtwey - March 2003, In Baghdad, a woman carries vegetables home from market during a lull in the American attacks. At these times the life of the capital city momentarily returns to a semblance of normality. James Nachtwey - In the orange light created by a huge sandstorm a statue of Saddam Hussein presides over Palestine Square in Baghdad. The sandstorm delayed an American ground offensive and deterred bombing sorties.
Iraqi - as close to peaceful as we’ve seen… Back to index page … Damir Sagolj, Reuters John Moore, Associated Press John Moore, Associated Press Romeo Gacad, AFP
National Geographic Magazine http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/12/1210_031210_warwomen.html Time Magazine http://www.time.com/time/photoessays Time Magazine http://www.time.com/time/2002/afghanistan/ CFJE Online http://www.cfje.dk/cfje/Uddbase.nsf/ID/UB04481190 First Run Icarus Films http://www.frif.com/new2002/warp2.html United States Department of Defense http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Feb2003/d20030228pag.pdf California State University at Fullerton http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/writings/military.html USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review http://www.ojr.org/ojr/lasica/1048185413.php Corbis http://pro.corbis.com/sectionfront/default.aspx?Category=9 United States Department of Defense http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Feb2001/n02132001_200102135.html Los Angeles Times Newspaper http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/iraq/la-iraq-war-photos,0,5399727.gallery?coll=la-adelphia-right-rail Website by Paige Ozaroski - Temple University – Photography for the Mass Media – 2004 * for educational use only * Back to index page … Sources