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  • University Of Manchester

    1. 2. Does Dearing still matter? <ul><li>AUA Planning Forum </li></ul><ul><li>University of Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>31 October 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>David Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Higher Education Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Education </li></ul>Institute of Education University of London 20 Bedford Way London WC1H 0AL Tel +44 (0)20 7612 6000 Fax +44 (0)20 7612 6126 Email Web
    2. 3. The spirit of the times, 1996-97 <ul><li>UK HE since 1979 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction, expansion and “consolidation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The end of the “binary line” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial devolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under-funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Top-up fees” </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education <ul><li>Terms of reference </li></ul><ul><li>To make recommendations on how the purposes, shape, structure, size and funding of higher education, including support for students, should develop to meet the needs of the United Kingdom over the next twenty years, recognising that higher education embraces teaching, learning, scholarship and research. </li></ul>
    4. 8. Four big ideas <ul><ul><li>Contribution of higher education to lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision for learning in the twenty-first century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding research according to its intended outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “compact” </li></ul></ul>
    5. 9. The Dearing Report: key messages <ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality and Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore short-term funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionalism in teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New funding for research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “graduate contribution” (£1,000) plus maintenance grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional and community role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of pay and working practices </li></ul></ul>
    6. 10. Robbins (1963) Dearing (1997) White Paper (2003) Total HE student numbers, UK, 1960 - 2005
    7. 11. UK HE student numbers by mode and level, 1979 - 2005
    8. 12. Percentage change in enrolments by subject area, 1996/7 to 2005/06
    9. 13. UK HE 1997- 2007 <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>More devolution </li></ul><ul><li>More universities </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Innovation strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming the third leg </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing/unfinished business </li></ul><ul><li>Widening participation </li></ul><ul><li>Employer engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation (and quality) </li></ul><ul><li>The F/HE nexus </li></ul>
    10. 14. Facing the future: UK HE <ul><li>Solving the funding problem </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing to social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing the UK position in the knowledge economy </li></ul><ul><li>A satisfying experience? </li></ul>
    11. 15. Fees and funding <ul><li>Supporting institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting students </li></ul>                                                                                                                 
    12. 16.                                                         
    13. 17. Equity and access <ul><li>The big question: progression and life-chances </li></ul><ul><li>The little question: “fair access” </li></ul><ul><li>The bursary jungle </li></ul><ul><li>Merit or need </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our top universities” </li></ul>
    14. 18. A positional good? <ul><li>“ You can only enjoy a positional good if others don’t have it,” </li></ul><ul><li>The Economist 23.12.06 </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s not enough to succeed. Others must fail.” </li></ul><ul><li>Gore Vidal </li></ul><ul><li>“ The trouble with fairness is that there isn’t enough to go around.” </li></ul><ul><li>Guy Browning </li></ul>
    15. 19. Excellence and merit <ul><li>“ It is good sense to appoint individual people to jobs on their merit. It is the opposite when those who are judged to have merit of a particular kind harden into a new class without room in it for others….A social revolution has been accomplished by harnessing schools and universities to the task of sieving people according to education’s narrow band of values.” Michael Young, author of “The Rise of the Meritocracy” (1958), 29.6.01 </li></ul>
    16. 20. Reputation over quality <ul><li>“ Institutions such as my own are outposts of serious and bright students of modest or low-income background taught by dedicated faculty who are often respected researchers as well. These institutions are home to a democratic institutional culture simply not possible at elite institutions…It is time that the national agonizing about the income bias of elite institutions shifts its focus to these institutions.” Lawrence Blum, The New York Review of Books. </li></ul>
    17. 21. Knowledge creation and use <ul><li>Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of public funding </li></ul>
    18. 22. The balance of dual support
    19. 23. EU and global connections
    20. 25. HE research shows an uneven regional distribution, e.g. Thomson ISI ® data on research output and impact Height of blue bars indicates publication volume, scale is 0-5000 Citation impact is red line , scale is 0-2.5 where world average impact (1.0) is second line on each graph Regions
    21. 26. Research grants and contracts as a percentage of funding council research grant, 2005/06
    22. 27. World-classness <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism </li></ul>
    23. 28. World-classness <ul><li>What counts </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Media interest </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>International “executive” recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>What doesn’t count </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching quality </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Services to business and the community </li></ul><ul><li>Rural interests </li></ul><ul><li>Other public services </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>The public interest </li></ul>
    24. 29. The university community <ul><li>The fate of the “compact” </li></ul><ul><li>The “psychological contract” </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappiness </li></ul>
    25. 30. ‘ 100 voices’ (2007) <ul><ul><ul><li>* “This is the most exciting time in HE that I have known in 10 years in the profession” (14). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* “I am frustratingly satisfied with my role over the past 10 years” (60). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Despite universities achieving overall excellent teaching and research results over the past decade they are in general pretty unhappy places” (66). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 31. The ‘100 voices’ <ul><li>Roles (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of institutions (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Deputies or PVCs (13) </li></ul><ul><li>Senior administrators (21) </li></ul><ul><li>Other administrators (24) </li></ul><ul><li>HE “experts” (20) </li></ul><ul><li>HE “agencies” (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional bodies (inc. unions) (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Academics under 40 (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Student leader (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Male (58) </li></ul><ul><li>Female (42) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Academic” (46) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Support” (54) </li></ul><ul><li>1-10 years service (22) </li></ul><ul><li>11-20 (43) </li></ul><ul><li>21-30 (22) </li></ul><ul><li>31-40 (14) </li></ul>
    27. 32. ‘ 100 voices:’ responses (1) <ul><li>The UK system is improving: </li></ul><ul><li>in teaching - 57% (9% strongly) </li></ul><ul><li>in research - 61 (16) </li></ul><ul><li>in services to business - 63 (11) </li></ul><ul><li>in service to society - 50 (11) </li></ul><ul><li>My own institution is improving: </li></ul><ul><li>in teaching - 57 (14) </li></ul><ul><li>in research - 48 (29) </li></ul><ul><li>in services to business - 53 (18) </li></ul><ul><li>in service to society - 53 (13) </li></ul>
    28. 33. ‘ 100 voices:’ responses (2) <ul><li>Student motivation has declined in the last 10 years - 27 (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Student performance has improved in the past 10 years - 33 (2) [40 unsure or unchanged] </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions “well-managed on the whole” - 58 (6) </li></ul><ul><li>The sector is still significant - 64 (23) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase proportion of private funding - yes 40, no 51 </li></ul><ul><li>Public confidence in HE has declined over the past 10 years - yes 33, no 34 [32 undecided] </li></ul><ul><li>UK HE “winning a global race” - yes 22, no 25 [44 undecided] </li></ul>
    29. 34. “ Higher education and human good” (McNay and Bone 2007) <ul><li>300+ responses - open invitation </li></ul><ul><li>(% agreeing) </li></ul><ul><li>“ emphasis in universities more on systems than people” - 85 </li></ul><ul><li>“ fear of sanctions against those who speak truth to power” - 79 </li></ul><ul><li>“ pressure from PIs and formula funding has led to leniency” - 75 </li></ul><ul><li>“ research integrity has been compromised” - 70 </li></ul><ul><li>HE has “lost its role as conscience and critic of society” – 72 </li></ul><ul><li>See website: </li></ul>
    30. 35. Unhappy students (and their families) <ul><li>Student “satisfaction” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Truth in advertising” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Extremism on campus” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Value for money” </li></ul><ul><li>Academic “appeals” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Special needs” </li></ul>
    31. 36. CEQ 06 NSS 07 Teaching staff good at explaining* 51 87 Staff make subject interesting* 53 75 Good advice on study choice* 47 65 Access to IT resources when needed* 65 89 As result of course, feel more confident about tackling unfamiliar problems** 61 77 Overall satisfaction** 70 82 * Similar question ** Identical question
    32. 37. Unhappy staff <ul><li>Bullying, harassment and grievances </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption of the human rights convention </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Tribunals </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational health </li></ul><ul><li>Career prospects, pay and pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Performance management </li></ul><ul><li>Work-life balance </li></ul><ul><li>“ academic populism” </li></ul>
    33. 38. Unhappy “stakeholders” <ul><li>Politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Employers </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>The media </li></ul><ul><li>“ Partners” and “clients” </li></ul><ul><li>The HE “gangs” </li></ul><ul><li>The “green ink file” </li></ul>
    34. 39. UK HE in 2007: ten “muddles” <ul><li>1. Fees </li></ul><ul><li>2. Regulation and quality </li></ul><ul><li>3. Skills and employability </li></ul><ul><li>4. Widening participation/fair access </li></ul><ul><li>5. Regions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Research selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>7. Europe </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sector solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>9. Britishness </li></ul><ul><li>10. Who is in charge? </li></ul>
    35. 40. A solution: the people will decide <ul><li>The rational teenager </li></ul><ul><li>The international campus </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learners </li></ul><ul><li>Generational change in staff </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional reinvention </li></ul><ul><li>Wider benefits of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Public interest </li></ul>
    36. 41. Old wine? <ul><li>Newman </li></ul><ul><li>Dearing on breadth </li></ul><ul><li>The Harvard core </li></ul><ul><li>The Melbourne model </li></ul><ul><li>The Russell Group’s “balanced diet” </li></ul><ul><li>Humboldt </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and research </li></ul><ul><li>Bildung durch Wissenschaft </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>In Einsamkeit und Freiheit </li></ul>
    37. 42. Discussion