Unit Three Culture


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Unit Three Culture

  1. 1. Unit Three Culture What is culture? It’s a complicated question to answer. In a broad sense, it is a large and integral part of our everyday lives such as our beliefs, values, behaviors, and our way of life, et.
  2. 2. Part A Indecency Hearings <ul><li>I. Vocabulary Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>indecency /  / the behavior that is sexually offensive, especially indecent exposure 猥亵;下流 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. an act of gross ~ </li></ul><ul><li>violate /  / to disobey or do something against an official agreement, law, principle, etc. 违反;妨碍 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ human rights/international law/one’s privacy </li></ul><ul><li>flash-dance /   / a brief indecent exposure of oneself in dancing 猥亵性暴露舞蹈动作 </li></ul>decency vs. indecency decent vs. indecent a decent job, dress, taste, et. an indecent joke, gesture, et.
  3. 3. <ul><li>outrage /  / to make someone feel very angry and shocked; a feeling of great anger and shock 激起义愤;激怒;愤怒 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. World opinions was ~d . </li></ul><ul><li>He was ~d by the injustice. </li></ul><ul><li>She was filled with an overwhelming sense of ~. ( n. ) </li></ul><ul><li>她义愤填膺。 </li></ul><ul><li>shock jock someone on a radio show who plays music and talks about subjects that offend many people 令人震惊的电台音乐节目主持人 </li></ul><ul><li>lowbrow /  / not cultured or intellectual; of a low taste 无文化修养的;智力低的;庸俗的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ readers/newspapers 粗俗的读者 / 报纸 </li></ul>The novel appeals to highbrows as well as lowbrows ( n. ) 这部小说雅俗共赏。
  4. 4. <ul><li>lash out to suddenly speak angrily to someone or criticize someone angrily 抨击;指责 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. In a bitter article, she lashed out at his critics. </li></ul><ul><li>humble pie admitting that you were wrong about something and say that you are sorry 低头谢罪;被迫低声下气地赔不是 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. He had to eat humble pie . </li></ul><ul><li>stunt /  / something that is done to attract people‘s attention, especially in advertising or politics 引人注目的花招;噱头 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a political ~ 哗众取宠的政治花招 </li></ul><ul><li>publicity ~s 宣传噱头 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>buy /  / to believe something that someone tells you, especially when it is not likely to be true 接受;同意 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. They refused to ~ the explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>crotch /  / the part of your body between the tops of your legs, or the part of a piece of clothing that covers this 胯部;裤裆 </li></ul><ul><li>line one’s pocket to make a lot of money, especially by dishonest or corrupt methods 为某人牟利;中饱私囊 </li></ul><ul><li>nudity /  / the state of not wearing any clothes 裸体;裸露 </li></ul>adj. nude facts a nude figure, model, show
  6. 6. II. Notes <ul><li>Dan Rather anchor and managing editor of the CBS Evening News . Since 1962, when Dan Rather first joined CBS News, he has handled some of the most challenging assignments in journalism. His day-to-day commitment to substantive, fair and accurate news reporting and his tough, active style have earned him a position of respect among his peers and the public. 丹•拉瑟 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Wyatt Andrews a CBS News National Correspondent since 1991. He is a regular contributor to the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather and to the broadcast’s Eye on America series. He also covers breaking news and contributes feature segments to other CBS News programs. 华特 • 安德鲁斯 </li></ul><ul><li>Viacom /  / an international media conglomerate. The companies owned by Viacom touch virtually every major segment of the media industry. Sumner Redstone is Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, and Mel Karmazin is the president and Chief Operating Officer. Viacom 公司 </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>the Super Bowl a football game played in the US each year in late January on a Sunday, known as Super Bowl Sunday, that decides which team is the winning team of the year in the NFL (National Football League). It was first held in 1967, and is watched on television by millions of people. 超级杯球赛 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Janet Jackson (1966-) an American singer and sister of pop star Michael Jackson. She was one of the most commercially successful female pop stars in the 1980s and 1990s. During the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXVIII on February 1, 2004, Janet Jackson performed with Justin Timberlake to an audience of over 100 million people. During this live performance, her top was torn open by Timberlake, exposing Jackson's right breast. As a result, CBS cancelled its invitation to Jackson to perform at the 2004 Grammy Awards ceremony. 珍妮 • 杰克逊 </li></ul>
  10. 10. III. Exercise: Spot Dictation <ul><li>Dan Rather: Some US officials now want federal laws against indecency on television to apply to cable channels as well as broadcast. Congress today began 1 _ whether and how Viacom, CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), the NFL (National Football League), and MTV may have violated indecency rules during the Super Bowl 2 show. But as CBS’s Wyatt Andrews reports, today’s hearings covered a lot more than one “flash-dance.” </li></ul>looking into half-time
  11. 11. <ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: It’s already the breast that rocked the broadcast world, but now it has outraged most of 3 too. </li></ul><ul><li>Rep. Joe Barton: We’re mad as h-e-double-l (hell) and we’re not going to 4 any more. Um, I think that’s where the country is. </li></ul><ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: 2 congressional committees already angry about radio shock jocks and low-brow TV, used hearings to 5 at the Super Bowl show staged by the NFL and CBS whose bosses answered mostly with humble pie. </li></ul>Congress take it lash out
  12. 12. <ul><li>Paul Tagliabue: Soon as I started looking at the half time show, I felt like I was kicked in the stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>Mel Karmazin: And I apologize here again to all of you. </li></ul><ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: Mel Karmazin of Viacom, the parent company of CBS, insisted the stunt was Janet Jackson’s secret. CBS, he said, did not know in advance, but still 6 . </li></ul><ul><li>Mel Karmazin: We’re not defending anything on any basis of free speech. This should not have happened. </li></ul>took responsibility
  13. 13. <ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: Critics though, were not 7 , saying it wasn’t just the flash job, it was the whole super bowl package… </li></ul><ul><li>Nelly (raps on the stage): …so take off all your clothes… </li></ul><ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: …including crotch-grabbing singers performing for a TV audience full of grade school children. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Heather Wilson: You knew what you were doing. You knew what kind of entertainment you’re selling. It improves your 8 and it lines your pockets. </li></ul>buying market share
  14. 14. <ul><li>Wyatt Andrews: Could that outrage create more tasteful television? Observers say because the networks need younger 9 , don’t bet on it. Congress will probably increase the fine for indecency to $3 million. But here’s what else Jackson has exposed: what is indecency? Beyond nudity and the seven bad words, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) has found indecency almost impossible to 10 . Wyatt Andrews, CBS News, Washington. </li></ul>mass audience define
  15. 15. IV. Supplementary Video <ul><li>Widespread Pornography Industry </li></ul><ul><li>无孔不入的色情行业 </li></ul><ul><li>Announcer: Paul Fishbine publishes the Adult Video News , the porn industry’s trade magazine. But when the VCR first came out, he was working as a clerk in a video store. </li></ul><ul><li>porn [  n ;  n] n .< 口 >(=pornography [  ] ) 色情文学,色情描写 </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Paul Fishbine: Most people had never seen an adult movie ( 成人电影 ) because they had to go out in public to a theater to see it. I mean, sex is a very private thing, so now that you can watch it in the privacy of your own home, nobody has to know. And I think that’s what drove the VCR (video cassette recorder 录像机 ). And I think to a degree, it’s what drove a lot of people to get on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcer: In fact, pornography has helped drive early sales and the development of most new entertainment technologies for the past 25 years, providing software for the latest gadgets [ [  g  ] n. 小器具;诡计 ] and a reason to buy them. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>And usually the first people who do are affluent [ [  ] adj. 丰富的,富裕的 ] young men who like porn. Type the word “sex” into an Internet search engine like Google, and you will get 180 million hits. For years, adult sites were the only ones to turn a profit. They pioneered and helped develop numerous technological breakthroughs– from online payment methods to streaming video. Legal expert Fred Lane wrote a book about this unofficial commercial partnership between technology and the adult entertainment industry. He believes it’s had a tremendous impact on American values, popular culture and the government’s ability to regulate pornography. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>. Fred Lane: The way I like to put it is (1) we went from a thousand adult movie theaters in less than ten years to 80 million adult movie theaters. And that basically is what happened with the VCR. The computer now, in terms of[1] its penetration[2] into American households – uh, the last figure I saw was somewhere in the order of 70, 80 million households out of the hundred million in this country. So again, we’ve got enormous, ah, potential for people to look at things in the privacy of their home. </li></ul><ul><li>[1] in terms of: 就……方面;以某种说法来表达 </li></ul><ul><li>[2] penetration [  ] n . 穿过,渗透,突破 </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Announcer: Has it become more difficult in the United States to win an obscenity [1] prosecution [2] ? </li></ul><ul><li>Fred Lane: Absolutely. As adult materials have found their way into different communities by different means – whether it’s by cable television, or it’s by hotel chains or what have you, people have grown increasingly comfortable with adult materials. And there seems to me, I think to be, a growing sense that what people do in the privacy of their homes is their business. </li></ul><ul><li>[1] obscenity [  ] n. 淫秽,猥亵 </li></ul><ul><li>[2] prosecution [  ] n . 检举;起诉 </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Announcer: Porn is so accessible now it’s working its way into the subtext of American culture, crossing over into fashion, music and television. What you’re watching is a Christina Aguilera music video, which is a staple on MTV and VH1. This may look like porn, but it’s actually a Britney Spears concert that appeared on HBO, dripping with sexual imagery obviously borrowed from the world of adult entertainment. You’ll even find porn references on “Friends”. accessible [  ] adj. 易接近的,可到达的,易受影响的 </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Joey: Wow! Is this porn? What did I do? I must have hit something on the remote. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler: Do we pay for this? </li></ul><ul><li>Luke Ford: Most Americans are fascinated by it – most male Americans. But, ah, they still, you know, if they had a pornographer come over and sleep in their house, they’d want to burn the sheets the next morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcer: Luke Ford, who spent seven years writing an internet gossip column about the adult entertainment industry for his own internet website, isn’t sure what to make of it. </li></ul><ul><li>column [  ]   n . (报纸、杂志)专栏 </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Luke Ford: It’s become popular, or cool, acceptable in this 18 to 25 age group. My age group – I’m 37 – my age group and up, we think porn is something that’s shameful. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcer: He guesses that it’s an act of teenage rebellion, embracing ( 欣然接受 ) one of society’s last taboos . How many films do you think have been shot here? </li></ul><ul><li>Luke Ford: Five hundred. </li></ul><ul><li>taboo [  ] n. (宗教)禁忌,避讳;禁止接近 </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Announcer: Ford, who is often referred to as the Matt Drudge of adult entertainment ( 成人娱乐 ), gave us a tour of a backyard porn set in a residential neighborhood of Chatsworth that’s been used by porn directors for more than 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>drudge [  ] n. 苦工;做繁重乏味工作的人 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Part B Church Wedding for Divorcees <ul><li>I. Vocabulary Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>waltz /  / to walk somewhere easily, calmly and confidently 轻快地走动;充满信心地走 e.g. ~ in and out of the room </li></ul><ul><li>aisle /  / a long passage between rows of seats in a church, plane, theatre, et., or between rows of shelves in a shop 走廊;过道 e.g. ~ seats </li></ul><ul><li>vicar /  / a priest in the Church of England who is in charge of a church in a particular area 教区牧师 </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>justify /  / to demonstrate or prove to be just, right, or valid; to be a good and acceptable reason for something 表明…是正当的;证明…是有道理的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Can you ~ your actions to me? </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing ~fies cheating on the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>What ~fied her being late? </li></ul><ul><li>abortion /  / the deliberate ending of a pregnancy at an early stage 人工流产;堕胎 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. support/oppose ~ </li></ul><ul><li>~ laws </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>tread / walk a tightrope to be in a difficult situation in which something bad could happen if you make a mistake 走钢丝;处境困难 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. He recognized that he was walking a tightrope : one slip would mean political destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>undermine /  / to gradually make someone or something less strong or effective; to weaken 逐渐损坏;削弱 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ the confidence seriously </li></ul><ul><li>~ one’s health </li></ul>
  27. 27. II. Notes <ul><li>Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962) a US film actress and singer, whose real name was Norma Jean Baker. People still think of her as the most typical example of a sex symbol. Her films include Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953) and Some Like It Hot (1959). 玛丽莲•梦露 </li></ul><ul><li>James Bond a character in the books by Ian Fleming, and in the films that have been based on these stories. James Bond is a secret agent who works for the British government and is sometimes called 007 . 詹姆士•邦德 </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>East Anglia a large area of eastern England, between the Wash and the Thames, including Norfolk, Suffolk, and parts of Essex and Cambridgeshire. The countryside is mostly flat, and a lot of wheat, flowers, and vegetables are grown there. 东英吉利亚 </li></ul><ul><li>the Church of England the state church in England, the official leader of which is the Queen or King 英国国教;英国圣公会 </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Suffolk /  / a county of eastern England bordering on the North Sea. Its name means the “southern people”, as opposed to the “northern people” of Norfolk. 萨福克郡 </li></ul><ul><li>the Synod /  / the group of people who govern the Church of England. It includes bishops and elected representatives from among the priests and other members of the church. 教会会议 </li></ul>
  30. 30. III. Exercise <ul><li>Listen to the news report and choose the best the answer to the following questions. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Who got married at a church in Suffolk in the news report? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Marilyn and James. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Wendy and Mark. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Marilyn and Robert. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Wendy and James. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>2. What is the Church of England discussing this week? </li></ul><ul><li>A. If people can divorce in church. </li></ul><ul><li>B. If people can break the wedding vows made in the eyes of God. </li></ul><ul><li>C. If non-believers can marry in church. </li></ul><ul><li>D. If people can remarry in church. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Who was the happiest at this church wedding? </li></ul><ul><li>A. The bride. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The groom. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The vicar. </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Synod. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>4. Why did the vicar of Buxhall change his mind and marry divorced people in church? </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Synod has allowed vicars to marry divorced people in church. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Synod welcomes such a change in Church law. </li></ul><ul><li>C. He found that his refusal to marry divorced people in church was hurting people. </li></ul><ul><li>D. He found that his refusal to marry divorced people in church was causing him pain. </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is the general feeling about divorced people remarrying in church? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Anger. B. Anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Resistance. D. Acceptance. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Part C Muslim Women’s Rights in Kuwait <ul><li>Muslim /  / a follower of the religion started by Mohammed; a believer in Islam 穆斯林;伊斯兰教信徒 </li></ul><ul><li>prosperous /  / rich and successful; well-off 繁荣的;富足的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ countries/cities/economies </li></ul><ul><li>China is enjoying a period of peace and prosperity ( n. ). </li></ul><ul><li>norm /  / a standard that is regarded as average or generally accepted 规范;准则 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. social/cultural ~s ~s of conduct 行为准则 </li></ul>The economy prospered ( v. ) under his administration.
  34. 34. <ul><li>startling /  / very unusual or surprising; remarkable 令人吃惊的;惊人的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ contrast/discovery/result </li></ul><ul><li>conservatism /  / the tendency to resist great or sudden change, especially in politics 保守主义;守旧 </li></ul><ul><li>adj. </li></ul><ul><li>conservative art / politics </li></ul><ul><li>Islam /  / the Muslim religion, which was started by Muhammad and whose holy book is the Koran 伊斯兰教;回教 </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>browse /  / to look at the goods in a shop without wanting to buy any particular thing 随意观看;浏览 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ through books/newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>~ about/around/among the market/bookshops </li></ul><ul><li>boutique /  / a small shop that sells clothes and other articles of the latest fashion 精品店;时装屋 </li></ul><ul><li>evolution /  / the gradual change and development of an idea, situation, or object 演变;渐次发展 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Darwin’s theory of ~ </li></ul><ul><li>the ~ of human species </li></ul>evolve ( v. ) from /out of A into B
  36. 36. II. Notes <ul><li>Brent Sadler CNN’s Beirut bureau chief, named to this position upon the reopening of the bureau in 1997. Sadler joined CNN in 1991 and has covered a number of prominent news stories from the Middle East, Europe, Russia and South America. 布伦特 • 赛德勒 </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait a small oil-rich monarchy on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed by Saudi Arabia in the south and Iraq in the north. Kuwait is in Southwest Asia. 科威特 </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia a country on the Arabic Peninsula. It borders Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Yemen. 沙特阿拉伯 </li></ul>
  37. 37. III. Exercise <ul><li>Listen to the news report and decide whether the following statements are true or false. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Muslim women in Kuwait are found to be optimistic ( 乐观的 ) about their future. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Most women in Kuwait can now dress the same way as women in Europe or the States. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unlike other Muslim countries, women in Kuwait are now allowed to vote or run for office. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>4. Western support for political reform in Kuwait is generally welcomed by its women. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Women in Kuwait prefer a smooth transition in political reform to a dramatic one. </li></ul><ul><li>Key: </li></ul><ul><li>1. True 2. False 3. False </li></ul><ul><li>4. False 5. True </li></ul>
  39. 39. Part D Franksgiving, What a Mess <ul><li>I. Vocabulary Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>proclamation /  / an official public statement about something that is important, or when someone makes such a statement 宣言 ; 宣告 ; 公布 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. issue/make a ~ that… </li></ul><ul><li>merchant /  / someone whose occupation is the wholesale purchase and retail sale of goods for profit; someone who runs a retail business 商人 ; 零售商 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a coal/wine ~ </li></ul>proclaim ( v. ) to sb. that… ~ war, a state of emergency, a new policy, one’s opinion
  40. 40. <ul><li>stick with to continue doing something the way you did or planned to do before 继续;保持 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. We stuck with him as our candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for giving me the courage to stick with my English study. </li></ul><ul><li>Stuck with me and you will not get lost. </li></ul><ul><li>versus /  / against (sb. / sth.) 对;对抗 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the plaintiff vs. the defendant 原告对被告 </li></ul><ul><li>reign /  / to exist strongly for a period of time; to spread widely 支配;盛行 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. He ~ed over ( 统治 ) the country for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence ~ed supreme. 暴力盛行。 </li></ul><ul><li>At last silence ~ed. 最后,万籁俱静。 </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>coordinate /  / to organize an activity so that the people involved in it work well together and achieve a good result 调整;协调 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ the functions of government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>maintain sustainable, stable and ~d growth of economy 保持经济持续、稳定和协调发展 </li></ul><ul><li>patriotic /  / having or expressing a great love of your country 爱国的;有爱国心的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ song/statesman/soldier </li></ul><ul><li>overrule /  / to change an order or decision that you think is wrong, using your official power 驳回;否决;宣布无效 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ a decision / a proposal / an objection </li></ul>a fervent / an ardent patriot ( 爱国者 ) arouse, display, foster patriotism ( 爱国心 )
  42. 42. II. Notes <ul><li>Thanksgiving /  / a public holiday in the US (on the fourth Thursday in November) and in Canada (on the second Monday in October) when families have a large meal together to celebrate and be thankful for food, health, families, etc. 感恩节 </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) President of the US from 1861 to 1865. The American Civil War started soon after he became President. In 1863 he announced the Emancipation Proclamation, by which all slaves in the US became free people. A few days after the war ended, he was shot and killed in a theatre by an actor. 亚拉伯罕 · 林肯 </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) a US politician in the Democratic Party, who was the President of the US from 1933 to 1945. He helped to end the Great Depression by starting a program of social and economic changes called the New Deal. He also tried to give support to the Allies without getting the US involved in World War II, but when Japan attacked the US in 1941 he was forced to join the war. Roosevelt is the only person who has ever been elected President of the US four times. He was extremely popular when he was president, and many people listened to his “fireside chats” on the radio, in which he explained his plans and policies. 富兰克林 · 罗斯福 </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>the Great Depression the severe economic problems that followed the Wall Street Crash of 1929. In the early 1930s, many banks and businesses failed, and millions of people lost their jobs in the US and in the UK and the rest of Europe. 大萧条时期 </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut /  / a state in the northeastern US. It was one of the original thirteen states established under British rule 康涅狄格州 </li></ul><ul><li>Brooklyn /  / an industrial and international port area in southeast New York on western Long Island, and one of the New York City’s five boroughs 布鲁克林区 </li></ul>
  45. 45. III. Exercise <ul><li>Answer the following questions. </li></ul><ul><li>1. When did President Lincoln sign the Thanksgiving proclamation? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How many terms did President Roosevlet serve as US president? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why did President Roosevelt decide to move Thanksgive one week earlier? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How many states opposed President Roosevelt’s decision to move the holiday? </li></ul><ul><li>5. When did Congress take a hand in the matter and overrule the this change? </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Key to the answer: </li></ul><ul><li>1. When did President Lincoln sign the Thanksgiving proclamation? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How many terms did President Roosevlet serve as US president? </li></ul>In 1863. Four.
  47. 47. <ul><li>3. Why did President Roosevelt decide to move Thanksgive one week earlier? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How many states opposed President Roosevelt’s decision to move the holiday? </li></ul><ul><li>5. When did Congress take a hand in the matter and overrule the this change? </li></ul>To add an extra week to the Christmas shopping season. 23. In 1941.
  48. 48. Part E Why not Test Marriage Annually? <ul><li>I. Vocabulary Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>perplexed /  / confused and worried by something that you do not understand; puzzled 困惑的 ; 不知所措的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ look/look/voice </li></ul><ul><li>He scratched his head with a ~ air. </li></ul><ul><li>gay /  / someone, especially a man, who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex 同性恋者;尤指男同性者 ( 女同性恋 : lesbian ) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ friend/bar/marriage ~ civil rights </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>promptly /  / at the right time without being late; immediately 马上;立刻 </li></ul><ul><li>ratification /  / the act of making a written agreement official by signing it 批准;认可 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Treaties require ~ by the respective countries. </li></ul><ul><li>amendment /  / a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document, or the process of doing this 修正;改进 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. introduce/propose/table/ratify/adopt an ~ </li></ul><ul><li>constitution /  / a set of basic laws and principles that a country or organization is governed by 宪法 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. an amendment to the ~ a written ~ 成文宪法 </li></ul>prompt adj. ~ actions, ~ to respond, ~ at sth. / in doing sth. ratify a series of decisions, an agreement
  50. 50. <ul><li>ridiculous /  / very silly or unreasonable; deserving to be laughed at 荒谬的;可笑的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. What a ~ idea ! Don’t be ~! </li></ul><ul><li> His asking price is simply ~. 他简直漫天要价。 </li></ul><ul><li>organ /  / a large musical instrument used especially in churches, with keys like a piano and large pipes that air passes through to produce the sound 风琴;管风琴 </li></ul><ul><li>announcement /  / a small advertisement or statement in a newspaper; an important or official statement 发布;宣布 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. make/issue a broadcast ~ about … </li></ul><ul><li>deliver a formal/official/public ~ that … </li></ul>ridicule n. draw ~ / pour ~ on sb. / expose sb. to ~ announce vt. ~ to sb. that… ~ the news formally/publicly to sb.
  51. 51. <ul><li>bridal /  / relating to a wedding or a woman who is getting married 新娘的;婚礼的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ veil/gown a ~ chamber ( 洞房 ) / suite </li></ul><ul><li>stable /  / steady and not likely to move or change 稳定的;稳固的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a ~ political environment ~ prices/employment </li></ul><ul><li>a ~ marriage/chair/ladder emotionally ~ </li></ul><ul><li>welfare /  / help that is provided for people who have personal or social problems; money that is paid by the government in the US to people who are very poor or unemployed 福利;社会救济 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. seek people’s ~   child/animal ~   live on ~ </li></ul><ul><li>~ provision/services/work 福利供给/机构/工作 </li></ul>a toast to bride and groom/bridegroom ( n. ) stabilize ( n. ) the patient’s condition, prices, a government maintain economical, political stability ( n. )
  52. 52. <ul><li>undergo /  / to pass through; to experience 经受;经历 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ tests/trials/repairs/major surgery </li></ul><ul><li>prohibit /  / to say that an action is illegal or not allowed; to forbid 禁止;不准 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ~ sb. (strictly/totally) from doing sth. </li></ul><ul><li>Family finances ~ his going to university. </li></ul><ul><li>im practical /  / not sensible or possible for practical reasons 不实际的;不实用的 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. an ~ pipe dream a totally ~ view </li></ul>prohibition n. impose a ~ on sb. call for a total ~ on alcohol 全面禁酒
  53. 53. <ul><li>permanently /  / always, or for a very long time 永久地;长久地 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g The stoke left his right side ~ damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>She had decided to settle ~ in France. </li></ul><ul><li>permit /  / official document that gives somebody the right to do something, esp. to go somewhere 许可证;(尤指)通行证 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. grant/give a ~ 发放许可证 </li></ul><ul><li>cancel/revoke/rescind a ~   吊销许可证 </li></ul><ul><li>a building, travel, work / an export, import ~ </li></ul><ul><li>permit ( =allow v. ) sb. to do sth. </li></ul>permanent adj. a ~ job / ~ staff / ~ damage leave ~ traces on the mind
  54. 54. <ul><li>extension /  / an additional period of time allowed for something 放宽的期限 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. a visa ~ be granted an ~ </li></ul><ul><li>apply for/request an ~ of stay </li></ul><ul><li>receive/get an ~ </li></ul><ul><li>The cold wave extended ( v. ) into March. </li></ul><ul><li>extensive ( adj. ) damage/research/knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>institution /  / an important system, custom, or behavioral pattern in the life of a community or society 制度;习俗 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the ~ of marriage 婚姻制度 </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and chips have become a British ~. </li></ul>institutional ( adj. ) investors/care/food
  55. 55. II. Notes <ul><li>the Wedding March a piece of music that is traditionally played after a marriage ceremony when the bride and groom start to walk down the aisle of the church 婚礼进行曲 </li></ul><ul><li>Oklahoma /  / a state in the Great Plains in the western central US, whose products include oil and grain. Oklahoma has a large Native American population. Oklahoma City is the capital and the largest city of the state. 俄克拉荷马 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Projects <ul><li>1. Conduct a survey of the changes in the divorce rates over the past twenty or thirty years in China. Explore the main underlining reasons and make a presentation in class. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find more information about Thanksgiving Day. Draw a comparison between Thanksgiving and the Mid-autumn Festival in China. </li></ul><ul><li>3. As we face increasing economic globalization, do you think there is also a tendency toward cultural integration? Prepare a report on this issue. </li></ul>