The Times They Are A Changin

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The Times They Are A Changin

  1. 1. “ The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan 1960s: An Era of Social Change Vickie Looser
  2. 2. ’60s: An Era of Social Change <ul><li>Latinos fight for change </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans struggle for equality </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans lead the civil rights movement </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s movement pushes for equality </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellious youth embrace counterculture </li></ul><ul><li>Counterculture impacts fashion, fine arts, and social attitudes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Latinos Fight for Change <ul><li>Large, diverse group of Spanish-speaking Americans </li></ul><ul><li>9 million by 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing </li></ul><ul><li>Live in segregated barrios or neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>50% higher rate of poverty and joblessness than whites </li></ul>empaz.org/marcelo/ images/latinos.JPG
  4. 4. Latinos demand Respect <ul><li>Cesar Chavez led United Farm Workers Movement to improve pay and working conditions for farm workers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Brown power” movements increase cultural pride </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual Education of 1968 funds bilingual and cultural heritage programs </li></ul><ul><li>Young Mexicans adopt Chicano as symbol of ethnic pride </li></ul><ul><li>Organize politically </li></ul>usinfo.state.gov/usa/ civilrights/a0423003.htm www.ufw.org/ cecchronsp.htm
  5. 5. Native Americans Unite <ul><li>Poorest Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Highest unemployment rate </li></ul><ul><li>Health Problems: tuberculosis, alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Termination policies to assimilate fail in 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Protesters demand reform </li></ul>www.fcvb.org / html/ npeople.html
  6. 6. African-Americans fight Jim Crow System <ul><li>Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>1950s: Fight against segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Topeka Board of Education orders segregation in public schools, no longer “separate but equal” doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance in Southern states: de jure segregation </li></ul><ul><li>1957 crisis in Little Rock to oppose integration of Central High School </li></ul>
  7. 7. Civil Rights 1950s <ul><li>1954: Montgomery Bus Boycott Begun by Rosa Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. helped to lead the Montgomery movement </li></ul>www.africanamericans.com/ IHaveADream.htm
  8. 8. Civil Rights 1960s <ul><li>1960 Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom riders attacked in Anniston, Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Birmingham’s Children’s Crusades for racial justice </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy uses federal troops to force desegregation of U of AL </li></ul><ul><li>Medgar Evars killed in Mississippi </li></ul>education.ua.edu/civilrights/ tuscaloosa/album.html
  9. 9. “I Have a Dream” <ul><li>1963 March on Washington </li></ul><ul><li>King’s speech appealed for peace and racial harmony </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy assassinated, President Johnson endorsed Civil Rights Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964 prevented discrimination to all areas of public accommodations </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freedom Summer, 1964 <ul><li>SNCC organized voter registration project </li></ul><ul><li>Selma-to-Montgomery march to promote voting rights movement </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated the literacy test </li></ul>www.southernregion.fs.fed.us/.../ info-mac-projects.htm
  11. 11. Changes in the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Northern de facto segregation resulted in urban violence </li></ul><ul><li>Race riots in Harlem, Watts </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for economic equality of opportunity in jobs, housing, and education </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ promotes his War on Poverty to establish his Great Society Program </li></ul>
  12. 12. New Voices in Civil Rights <ul><li>Malcolm X and Black Muslims promote Black Pride </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ballots or bullets” became new slogan </li></ul><ul><li>Broke with Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Preached black superiority and separation from whites </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1965 </li></ul>www.krref.krefeld.schulen.net/ referate/englisch/r0439t00.htm
  13. 13. Radicalism in Civil Rights <ul><li>Black Panthers organized in 1966 to fight police brutality </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated taking control of communities in which Blacks lived, full employment, and decent housing </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted Mao Zedong’s slogan “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun” </li></ul><ul><li>Feared by whites who objected to revolutionary rhetoric </li></ul>www.congregationofcoolkids.com/ greenlantern.htm
  14. 14. 1968: Turning Point in Civil Rights <ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated in Memphis in April </li></ul><ul><li>Urban rioting in major cities </li></ul><ul><li>Kerner Commission stated major cause of urban rioting to be white racism </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Civil Rights Gains by 1970 <ul><li>24 th Amendment banned Poll Tax </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans expressed greater pride in their racial identity </li></ul><ul><li>More African Americans in movies, television shows, and commercials </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of African Americans registered to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in African Americans holding elected office </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programs promoted hiring of groups who suffered discrimination in the past </li></ul>
  16. 16. Women Fight for Equality <ul><li>Feminism promoted economic, political, and social equality with men </li></ul><ul><li>1961 Presidential Commission reported wage discrimination in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Women inspired by civil rights and antiwar movements </li></ul><ul><li>Women shared in “consciousness-raising” sessions </li></ul>www.bol.ucla.edu/~aferrara/ Women.htm
  17. 17. The Feminine Mystique <ul><li>Betty Friedan’s book exposed discontent of U. S. women </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Liberation movement achieved political and social gains for women </li></ul>www.ktg-minden.de/msrap2000/ fp60iger.htm
  18. 18. NOW opposed sex discrimination <ul><li>Urged creation of more child care facilities and improved educational opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><li>Pressured EEOC to enforce ban on gender discrimination in hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Staged protest at Miss America pageant </li></ul><ul><li>Gloria Steinem founded National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to seek political office </li></ul><ul><li>1972 Ban on gender discrimination in higher education </li></ul>www.now.org/cgi-bin/store/ MS-NR.html
  19. 19. Roe v. Wade, 1973 <ul><li>Supreme Court ruled women had the right to choose an abortion in first three months of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Americans divided over abortion issue </li></ul>www.ajc.com/living/content/living/ special/roewade
  20. 20. Equal Rights Amendment <ul><li>Guaranteed “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked fierce opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllis Schlafly led Stop-ERA campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Ratified by 35 states, but needed 38 </li></ul><ul><li>Failed in ratification movement that ended in 1982 </li></ul>www.sd4history.com/Unit9/era.htm
  21. 21. Gains by Women’s Movement <ul><li>Opened up new opportunities for American women </li></ul><ul><li>Created new opportunities in education, employment, and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Women viewed their jobs as lifetime careers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Glass ceiling” recognized as an invisible, but real resistance to promoting women into top positions </li></ul>www.cvhs.com/tgarrity/.../ CR32003/Cacalicr3/page%205.htm
  22. 22. “Tune in, turn on, drop out.”—Timothy Leary <ul><li>Youth embrace Counterculture </li></ul><ul><li>Hippies criticize American materialism, technology, and war </li></ul><ul><li>Many chose to protest by leaving society to live in communes </li></ul>www.stedwards.edu/science/yohanan/.../ photographs.html
  23. 23. Age of Aquarius <ul><li>Desire an idyllic setting of peace, love and harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace rock ‘n’ roll music, outrageous clothes, and liberal use of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with marijuana and LSD (acid) </li></ul>www.stewartfamilykeepsakes.com/ Photos.html
  24. 24. “Do your own thing.” <ul><li>Hippies rejected the establishment by wearing outrageous clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Long hair and beards for men </li></ul><ul><li>Ragged jeans, tie-dyed T-shirts, and surplus military garments </li></ul><ul><li>Beads and Native American ornaments </li></ul>www.jeffbickford.com/halloween/ 1998/default.htm
  25. 25. Hippies adopt communal lifestlyes <ul><li>Reject conventional home life </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt group living arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Live together in cooperation and harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Escape to rural communes or crowd together in urban “crash pads” </li></ul><ul><li>Hippie Capital—Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco </li></ul>www.strangeroad.com/bucyrus/ Haight-Ashbury.htm
  26. 26. Lifestyle turns to violence and disillusioment <ul><li>Youths embrace new and different religious experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism offered enlightenment though meditation, self-contemplaation, and intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of India influenced many to embrace transcendental meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Communities change to violence and disillusionment </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Manson and his “family” kill 5 in Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread use of drugs led to overdoses, drug dependence, and mental and physical breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Rock singer Janis Joplin and guitarist Jimi Hendrix died of drug overdoses </li></ul><ul><li>Hippies ran out of resources to support themselves and turn to panhandling, welfare, and food stamps </li></ul>
  27. 27. A Changing Culture <ul><li>Andy Warhol led rise of pop art </li></ul><ul><li>Bright silk-screen portraits of soup cans, Marilyn Monroe and other icons of mass culture </li></ul><ul><li>New art built around popular culture </li></ul>www.brinkmann-literatur.de/ Pop-Art3.html www.artist-studio-phuket.com/.../ pop-andy-warhol-campbells-soup
  28. 28. New Fashions <ul><li>Longer hair, beards, mustaches for men </li></ul><ul><li>Colorful and comfortable clothes for women </li></ul><ul><li>Blue jeans become wardrobe staple for everyone </li></ul>www.backwardglances.com/ groovyGear.htm www.partypants.fsnet.co.uk/ fd_70smale.htm
  29. 29. British Invasion by the Beatles <ul><li>Rock ‘n’ roll developed from African-American rhythm and blues music </li></ul><ul><li>Captivated the teenagers of the 1950s but evolved </li></ul><ul><li>Led by the popularity of The Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired numerous other bands </li></ul>
  30. 30. Woodstock Art and Music Fair <ul><li>August, 1969 in upstate New York </li></ul><ul><li>Free music festival for 3 days and nights </li></ul><ul><li>400,000 show up for “Human Be-in” </li></ul><ul><li>Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joe Cocker, Joan Baez, the Grateful Dead, and Jefferson Airplane appeared on stage </li></ul>www.sea.fi/esitykset/syksy98/ musiikki.html
  31. 31. Changing Social Attitudes <ul><li>Sexual Revolution: view sexual behavior and human relationships more casually </li></ul><ul><li>Mass culture openly address former taboo subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce rate doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexual organizations openly fight for equal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood produces more sexually explicit films results in rating system for movies </li></ul>
  32. 32. Changes spawn conservative backlash <ul><li>Casual and permissive social behavior condemned by many </li></ul><ul><li>Counterculture and antiwar movement perceived as promoting lawlessness and chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative backlash helped to elect Richard Nixon </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bibliography <ul><li>Danzer, Gerald A. et al. The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20 th Century . Dallas: McDougal Little, 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures retrieved from Google.com/Images </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1960s: An era of change Vickie Looser Summer, 2004

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