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The Social Implications Of Computing

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The Social Implications Of Computing

  1. 1. The Social Implications of Computing "The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” -Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC
  2. 2. Computer Contributions to Society <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>The Web </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Phones </li></ul><ul><li>Video Games </li></ul>
  3. 3. Social Implications of Networked Communications
  4. 4. Estimated Users on the 'Net as of March 1999 <ul><li>88.3 million in the US and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>37.15 million in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>26.97 million in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>4.63 million in South America </li></ul><ul><li>1.14 million in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>0.88 million in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>159.0 million </li></ul><ul><li>Doubles every year </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Internet as a Communications Medium <ul><li>Electronic Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Library Archives </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>P2P networks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Public Spheres <ul><li>Prior Networked Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Town Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul><ul><li>Town Square </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuing Networked Communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Online Polls </li></ul>
  7. 7. Virtual vs. ‘Real’ Resources <ul><li>Online courses </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Research using search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Class discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Having coffee with a friend </li></ul><ul><li>A book which is primary source written by an expert in the field </li></ul>
  8. 8. Globalization vs. Isolation <ul><li>Share ideas with the world </li></ul><ul><li>Buy anything from anywhere, regardless of location </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with anyone in the world using 2 of your senses </li></ul><ul><li>But will be taken with a grain of salt </li></ul><ul><li>Without experiencing any culture outside the computer room </li></ul><ul><li>As opposed to meeting in person and communicating on all 5 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cons <ul><li>Copyright infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of social skill </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Desensitization </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusion <ul><li>Great tool if not taken out of context </li></ul>
  11. 11. Growth of, Access to, and Control of the Internet
  12. 12. Extreme Growth Who knows? 3000 (projection) 1000 25 Number of computers 2050 2003 1983 1971 Year
  13. 13. Growth of the internet <ul><li>ARPANET - started by DoD to research networks (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>December 1995 - 16 million users </li></ul><ul><li>Current: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Nielson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>580 million people worldwide now have access to the internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>168.6 million attributed to the U.S </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Top Five Most Popular Internet Activities (Percent Of Internet Users) <ul><ul><li>1. E-mail and instant messaging 87.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Web surfing or browsing 76.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Buying online 48.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Finding entertainment information 47.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Reading news 47.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(data from 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email usage has doubled in past three years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30  60 billion messages a year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another doubling expected by 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Who controls the internet <ul><li>Cyber crime defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dissemination of racist and xenophobic material through computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens must use state-run ISPs in some countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Who controls the internet (cont’d) <ul><li>Parents and Employers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber nanny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disallows graphic or violent images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platform for Internet Content Selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labels that discuss a sites content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Access to the Internet <ul><li>72.3% of Americans use the net </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Others do not for lack of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not disinterest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Men & Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx the same 74-70% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Income and educational difs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PhDs >85% >$100k = 10 hrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vs. vs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school 60% <$30k = 4hrs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Here to stay <ul><li>More people are using it daily </li></ul><ul><li>Look forward to equal access… </li></ul><ul><li>After all, the Internet is for everyone </li></ul><ul><li>(RFC 3721) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gender related Issues of Computing
  20. 20. Personal Experience <ul><li>I was too quick to judge. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyped. </li></ul><ul><li>Can such a biased stereotype be justified? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Is there a Gender Gap? <ul><li>After analyzing more than 1,000 research studies, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) has concluded that when it comes to technology, there is an alarming gender gap. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Statistics <ul><li>US population of men and women is 50:50. </li></ul><ul><li>Tech jobs are growing every year. </li></ul><ul><li>However women represent only 20% of the Computer science and engineering labor force. </li></ul><ul><li>Where are all the Women? </li></ul>
  23. 23. So What? <ul><li>“ The gender gap in computer science must be eliminated for two reasons. (1) The more obvious reason is to ensure that fair and equal treatment is being provided to all potential and current computer scientists. (2) The less considered danger of the gender gap concerns the advancement of the field as a whole. By hindering half of the population as potential contributors, the field of computer science decreases its chance of further development.” </li></ul>Quoted from: http://www.expage.com/page/genderissues3
  24. 24. Angles <ul><li>Male-Dominated Environment -Are women being elbowed out? </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination -HR playing favoritism? </li></ul><ul><li>Image of Computing - Nerdy/Bad Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Adequate High School/College Preparation -Do teachers encourage/discourage females to pursue tech jobs? </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Implications -Games -Role models </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lack of Adequate High School/College Preparation <ul><li>According to a study by the Research Foundation for Improving the Representation of Women in the Technology Workforce, the number of women who received CS bachelor's degrees, the number peaked in 1986 when women represented approximately 36% of the total number of graduates. Since then numbers have only declined! </li></ul><ul><li>“ The gender gaps we see are evidence that public schools are failing to fully prepare girls for the 21st century”. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned and embarrassed that women account for only 15 to 20 percent of their computer science majors, a number of top colleges are looking for ways to attract more women to careers in computers. They are adding courses that appeal to women's strengths, creating mentoring programs and thinking harder about the gender gap. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Societal Implications - Childhood Development? <ul><li>The Association for Computing Machinery's Committee on Women in Computing (ACM-W) have found that: </li></ul><ul><li>Role Models? – “Fathers are more likely to be using computers in the home than mothers so you have the element of the role model”. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence? - boys “exhibit higher computer self-confidence and a more positive attitude about computers than girls”. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Societal Implications - Video Games? <ul><li>Computer games, which often attract children to computers, are written by male programmers! </li></ul><ul><li>Generally these games consist of violence, killing and scoring points, all of which interest young boys . Thus girls, who are not engaged as much by these games, are less likely to follow this avenue into computer science. </li></ul><ul><li>Software produced specifically for girls? -Researchers and parents feel that so-called “pink” software, such as Disney’s Princess Fashion Boutique and Barbie Magic Hairstyler will teach girls the technology skills and confidence building they need to narrow the digital gender gap. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conclusion <ul><li>As technology continues to expand nationally and internationally, it is important that advances are equally influenced by men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to reduce the Gender Gap, the issue must be taken seriously. Schools, video game manufacturers, and industries must find a way to involve both genders. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents (mothers) must take an active roll in influencing and encouraging their daughters to pursue tech jobs/degrees. </li></ul>
  29. 29. International Issues
  30. 30. Issues of International Business <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Time Zones </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of data </li></ul><ul><li>Learning foreign Business Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Language <ul><li>Knowing a second language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If not then a translator may be needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans tend not to be multilingual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translations may contain errors </li></ul>
  32. 32. Time <ul><li>Time zone differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited windows of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Email? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always a perfect solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be time intensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not produce the best results </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Sharing of Data <ul><li>Media of transport/ Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfering projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snail Mail </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Learning foreign Business Practices <ul><li>Trying to treat international business partners like an american business is a BAD idea... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The appropriate ways of conducting business and holding meetings vary from country to country and from culture to culture.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A meeting set for a certain time in China a person should be 15 minutes early and preparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A meeting set for a certain time in Mexico might not actually start for an hour or two </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Examples of Do’s and Dont’s <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knock before opening a closed door. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shake someone's hand while your other hand is in your pocket. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Examples of Do’s and Dont’s <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid calling your associates' personal number for business related issues. If it cannot be avoided, do so before 9:00pm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For corporate letters or e-mail, use a very formal and business-like approach. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use first names during a business meeting. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show up late for meetings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring up business at the start of a dinner/meeting. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Examples of Do’s and Dont’s <ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forget it I don’t have enough time... </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Literature <ul><li>Books found @ barnesandnoble.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Business in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Korea: A Practical Guide to Understanding South Korean Business Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Business and Trade: Theory, Practice, and Policy </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Presentation <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be civil, neat and listen to what they are saying. Since we are representing our company, we need to project the best image to our customer.” –Ralph Flatau </li></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>http://www. zakon .org/ robert /internet/timeline/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. isp -planet.com/research/ </li></ul><ul><li>Number of users: h ttp://cyberatlas.internet.com/big_picture/geographics/article/0,,5911_1593591,00.html (feb 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4: http://www.isoc.org/briefings/001/ </li></ul><ul><li>Crime: http://www.cyber-rights.org/cybercrime/ </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics: http://ccp.ucla.edu/pdf/UCLA-Internet-Report-2001.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t control: http://www.rferl.org/nca/special/enemies.html </li></ul><ul><li>The map of the world: http://www.ipsos-reid.com/us/services/syndicated/dsp_face.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Armando Gomez. (2003, February 24). Business Travel Etiquette. [World Wide Web] Available: http://www. askmen .com/money/career/20_career.html </li></ul><ul><li>Flatau, Ralph. (2003, February 25). Infimed Inc Manager. [Email Interview] </li></ul><ul><li>http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=320264<http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=320264&;coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=8149335&CFTOKEN=12007127>&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=8149335&CFTOKEN=12007127 </li></ul><ul><li>Brainball: http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=604575<http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=604575&;idx=J373&type=issue&coll=portal&dl=ACM&part=magazine&WantType=Magazines&title=interactions&CFID=8149042&CFTOKEN=44437748>&idx=J373&type=issue&coll=portal&dl=ACM&part=magazine&WantType=Magazines&title=interactions&CFID=8149042&CFTOKEN=44437748 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Cell Phone Customers: http://www.emc-database.com/website.nsf/index/pr020319http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site= </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/internet/timeline/timeline%2Dtxt.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2001/09/28/relay.html </li></ul>
  41. 41. References (Cont.) <ul><li>http://www. acm .org/women/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. expage .com/page/genderissues3 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. cpsr .org/program/gender/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. pbs .org/ newshour /bb/youth/ jan -june99/ gendergap _1-29.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iota.org/Winter00/ gendergap .html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ucalgary.ca/~northcot/380-2/lec12.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ucalgary.ca/%7Ekawwalsh/introduction.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.interweb-tech.com/nsmnet/docs/updated_numbers.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/NetN3.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uclic.ucl.ac.uk/harold/srf/networked.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.caul.edu.au/org/commsdoc.htm </li></ul>

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