The American Nation

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  • The American Nation

    1. 1. THE AMERICAN NATION Eleventh Edition THE AMERICAN NATION Eleventh Edition
    2. 2. BEGINNINGS <ul><li>Passage to Alaska </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters moved north in Asia in search of large mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 12,000 B.C., hunters walk across Bering Strait into North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters arrived at the Great Plains and find lush grasslands and millions of large mammals </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The Demise of the Big Mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clovis hunters develop long spears and stone blades for more effective hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The animal slaughter begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some histoians debate the role of the Clovis hunters in killing these mammals </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>The Archaic Period: A World Without Big Mammals, 9000 B.C.-- 1000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of big mammals forces people to find new sources of food, clothing and shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Archaic Period lasts for several hundred human generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bands of Archaic people migrated in search of food according to season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some plant cultivation beings around 2500 B.C. The First Sedentary Communities, 1000 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedentary communities developed in different places at different times </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Poverty Point, Mississippi: an important early sedentary community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egalitarian social structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopewell Mounds developed in Ohio and Illinois. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corn Transforms the Southwest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Aztec city of Teotihuacán: population near 100,000, paved roads, complex housing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual domestication of corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>importance of corn in culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corn growing moves north to Mexican desert </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The Diffusion of Corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn moved slowly through North America because of weather and labor demands of the crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and gathering peoples slowly learned the necessity of agricultural labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Growth After 800 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn stimulated population growth by improving physical health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased population caused people to clear more land, which in turn allowed for higher population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade system evolves </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Cahokia: The Hub of Mississippian Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1000 A.D., Cahokia had become a major center of trade, religion and politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast and complex system of mounds and buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp class divisions were present at Cohokja </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Collapse of Urban Centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1200 A.D. most of the urban areas across North America were losing their populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? Ecological disasters, land abuse, crop failure all contributed to lack of adequate food supply </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Many corn-growing tribes also began a long period of warfare with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Beginnings in Eurasia and Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The domestication of a variety of crops (wheat, oats, peas, olives, etc.) and animals spread through African and Eurasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease wrought havoc on Eurasian populations </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Europe in Ferment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing population put pressure on resources of land which in turn caused political unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of tillable land created a large, wandering peasant class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of movable type created communication revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 15th century, Europeans were sharply divided along class and education lines and wholly cut-off for the worlds across the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE IN THE AMERICAS <ul><li>Columbus and the Discovery of America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus reached the West Indies on October 12, 1492 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by the fifteenth century, western Europeans discover direct routes to the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Henry of Portugal sponsored improvements in navigation and voyages of exploration </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Spain’s American Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1493, Pope divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal concentrated on Africa and Brasil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain concentrated on the Caribbean and Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Indian and the European </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European technological superiority, particularly in instruments of war, provided the tools for domination </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Relativity of Cultural Values </li></ul><ul>&l