Second International Forum On


Published on

Published in: Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Second International Forum On

  2. 2. Intellectual Property in a Knowledge-based Society prepared by Mr. Antonio Millé, President, Latin American Institute of High Technology, Computers and Law (ILATID), Buenos Aires The Role of Copyright and Future Challenges to Creators, Industry, Legislators and Society at Large Inventors’ and Creators’ Rights as Basic Human Rights
  3. 3. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijing - China 2002 From the beginning of time, mankind strove to know and exploit the riches offered by nature. Human ingenuity discovered techniques to multiply those natural riches, and thus, human communities scattered all over the world were able to share physical resources which were always scarce to satisfy the needs of a growing population.
  4. 4. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Talent found the way to apply the accumulated knowledge to the solving of practical needs, and into the resources available to mankind were incorporated the compass, or the breast chest, advantageous and useful procedures such as fabric spinning, or the construction of buildings with huge arches
  5. 5. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Poets, philosophers, sculptors, and musicians expressed their ideas and feelings in works which contributed to enriching the cultural environment of human beings.
  6. 6. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 But the existence of intellectual creations did not lead to the birth of any legal system which either favored their originators or allowed nations to add to their national capital the economic value of these intangible goods. As there did not exist any legal protection, once an invention was disclosed it could be utilized by anyone in any part of the world where said invention was known, and a work of art could be reproduced by anyone who had the necessary ability to do so.
  7. 7. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The birth of industries and the mass production requirements gave value to the invention of new industrial products and new methods to manufacture them. A legislative policy was required to encourage the disclosing of inventions, so that innovative ideas should be incorporated into the common accumulated knowledge and could be utilized to increase production
  8. 8. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The invention of the printing press afforded the opportunity to transform books, maps, pictures and illustrations into goods, while the proliferation of theater and opera companies caused living authors to redouble the production and spreading of new works. To avoid unfair competition against original creators, it was convenient to guarantee them an exclusivity right on their works which would allow them to negotiate with businessmen and obtain a compensation for their intellectual contribution .
  9. 9. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The Intellectual Property basic institutions were thus born: The Patent Right that ensures society the complete knowledge of the protected invention, and grants the inventor the exclusive right to benefit from the result of his/her inventiveness for a certain period of time The Copyright that recognizes that creators of works have the exclusive power to authorize their reproduction or communication to the public by cultural and show business industries, increasing the incentives so that the spiritual food nourishing society be multiplied
  10. 10. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Trademark Right Right to the protection of Industrial Secrets Right of Performer Artists Right to the protection of Integrated Circuits Right to the protection of Databases Right for the protection of New Varieties of Plants In the course of time, many others intellectual property systems were added : And the list goes on …
  11. 11. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Whereas the Patent Right is intended for legally protecting the ideological substance of human ingenuity products, the purpose of the Droit D’Auteur / Copyright is to protect the expressive form of such products. As regards the Droit D’Auteur / Copyright the requirement for the protection is not the “novelty” but the “ originality ” and the protected value is the expressive form (a certain combination of words, notes, colors, etc.), and not the substance of what is expressed. This is what distinguishes works, as “ intellectual creations of form ”, from inventions which constitute “intellectual creations of substance”.
  12. 12. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Since the existence of visual, sound and audiovisual recordings, the bodily performance of performing artists can be fixed on permanent bases which enable its economic exploitation by means of the reproduction of copies, communication of programs to the public, etc. This gave rise to the creation of a legal protection system named Performers Artists Right , which conforms in general to the rules applicable to the “intellectual creations of form”.
  13. 13. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The “intellectual creations of form” have acquired in time considerable economic value given that they are constantly used in the everyday life of the societies based on knowledge:  <ul><ul><li>Audio-Visual productions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Film, TV, Videos, Records, Cassettes, CDs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Books, Magazines, Newspapers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music Computer programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Graphic Arts, Software, Games) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed or photographed images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Image banks, Journalism, Publicity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture, Sculpture and Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Furniture, Decorative Arts, Fashion) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The conditions under which the current production of works and performances develops, requires the contribution of numerous teams of intellectual creators . The development of companies engaging in the generation of intellectual products and the exploitation of intellectual creations is indispensable to increase the production of © assets and transform its into articles of domestic and foreign trade. COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002
  15. 15. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 <ul><ul><li>During 2001, the US © industries contributed 5.24% of the GNP, such a contribution growing during the last 25 years more than twice of the rest of the economy. Employment increased more than three times as much as in the rest of the economy. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Industries <ul><ul><li>In 1977, the contribution of UK © industries was 5% of the GNP. 3.1% Canada, 3.4%, Spain, 4% Colombia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of Americans of more than 6 years (145 million persons) use computer or video games. in 2001: 225.1 million units U$ 6.35 billion. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 <ul><ul><li>After approximately 40 years of providing incentives to the cultural industries of the © sector, Brazil was ranked 6 th in the international music market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During 2001, the United States industries of the © sector sold cultural goods to the international market for US$ 88.97 billion, surpassing industries such as chemistry and derivatives, motor vehicles, industrial equipment and its spare parts, civil and military aeronautics and agriculture. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Industries
  17. 17. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The world total product of the © industries almost twice the one of tourism + pharmaceutical industries (Average 1998 / 2000 in billions of u$s) Copyright Industries USD 0,00 USD 200,00 USD 400,00 USD 600,00 USD 800,00 Tourism Industry Pharmaceutical Industry © Industry 443 350 800
  18. 18. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Since they tend to the multiplication of the offer and the expansion of the demand, these technologies should operate as an incentive to creation, access, and the enjoyment of the cultural products throughout the world, thus expanding the market for those products and extending the opportunities so that companies of any kind join the chain of exploitation of the products generated by intellectual creators.
  19. 19. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 1998 : Asia-Pacific Trade in Selected Cultural Goods (in US$ million) Source: International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods 1980 – 98. UNESCO, 2000
  20. 20. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 1998. Cultural Exports and Imports in the Asia- Pacific region (by developed and developing countries in US millions) Source: International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods 1980 – 98. UNESCO, 2000
  21. 21. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Intangible products of the industries of the © sector are easily appropriable by unscrupulous third parties and particularly vulnerable to the organized crime operations, and piracy. Ensuring conditions for the sound development of the industries of the © sector requires therefore a considerable strengthening of the legal protection on a national and international level. Because of its non material nature, to give economic value to the © products it is indispensable it legal protection.
  22. 22. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 © industries grow and consolidate themselves providing goods and services to the national market.  Piracy reduced dramatically the chances to create an environment favorable to build competitive national © industries.  In 2000, the business computer software piracy rate in China was of 94%, the second highest in the world (BSA). In 2001, the recorded music in China was 90% pirate (IFPI).
  23. 23. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Price Waterhouse Report on computer software piracy 2000 The market reduction caused by piracy resulted in 693,912 jobs being lost worldwide 95,214 of those positions were lost in the People’s Republic of China. Pirate copies destruction ceremony in Wuhan, Hubei
  24. 24. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The worldwide commerce of cultural products demands the existence of effective legal protection for works and artistic performances throughout the world.
  25. 25. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 In the case of “intellectual creations of form” , the legal protection implies the certainty that the Copyright holders may resort to the authorities of any country to demand that the copying of their expressions be prevented or forbidden, the copies made be withdrawn from trade, the unauthorized transmissions or distributions to the public be suspended, and that the persons responsible for such acts be compelled to compensate for the damages suffered.
  26. 26. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 By Berne Convention , the original authors of the member countries may claim “national treatment” at the justice courts of any other member country where they seek protection. Because the minimum conventional parameters , the works are currently protected all over the globe by application of highly harmonized principles . The new “Internet” treaties of the WIPO updated Bern Convention to fit in with the Information Society environment
  27. 27. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 In the last few years this harmonization has been accentuated, due to the almost unanimous adherence of the countries to the World Trade Organization with which practically all the nations of the world are currently members of the TRIP’s Agreement , and therefore, they must observe the substantial provisions of the Berne Convention even in the (exceptional) case that they are not members thereof.
  28. 28. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The legal framework shall shift from the area of contracts towards the area general legislation, and consequently, the need for the legislators’ involvement and participation seeking the harmonization of legal principles on the rights of authors and performer artists in domestic laws and international treaties shall consequently grow .
  29. 29. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 Nations interested in encouraging the development of a powerful force of intellectual creators, and of a booming segment of industries of the © sector, should get firmly involved in the progress of international legal instruments relative to electronic commerce and particularly to the electronic commerce of “contents”. Since at present there are an extended movement to achieve a world legal framework for the online environment Commercial Law , it would be natural that it should strengthen globally the tendency towards the harmonization of the institutions of the Droit d’Auteur / Copyright .
  30. 30. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The harmonization process of the legislation that protects “intellectual creations of form” is grounded on and driven by supra-constitutional bases which prevail over the national rights of any legal tradition, since they must fulfill the purpose established by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as set forth by Article 27 thereof : 1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. 2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
  31. 31. Antonio Millé © WIPO, Beijin - China 2002 The international community should promptly move towards the ensuring of a high degree of harmonization and the effective application of laws that make it possible to universally distribute the products of the industries of the © sector being completely sure about the level of protection to receive in any place of the world, and being absolutely certain that the means for the automatic administration of intellectual property shall operate with the same effectiveness in any territory in which a demander of cultural products accepts the offer from any distributor .
  32. 32. Arturo M. Bas 73, piso 1 X5000KLA Córdoba Argentina Tel. (54 + 351) 428-2981 Fax (54 + 351) 428-2981 Bartolomé Mitre 226 C1036AAD Buenos Aires Argentina Tel. (54 + 11) 4331 8191 Fax (54 + 11) 4334 0203