Qual Research Planningand Practice

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  • Qual Research Planningand Practice

    1. 1. Qualitative Research Methods: Planning and Practice Dr.Chris Atton Reader in Journalism School of Creative Industries (includes notes pages)
    2. 2. Beginning <ul><li>The subject matter is social life itself </li></ul><ul><li>‘ seeing the world from the viewpoint of the “actor”’ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about ‘a culture from the inside out' (Hannabuss, 1996: 22-23) </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses understanding </li></ul><ul><li>'reflexive of the process that has produced [it]' (Altheide, 1996: 2) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Reflexivity <ul><li>Requires a commitment to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Is it possible or desirable for us to suspend our sense of belonging? </li></ul><ul><li>A judicious balance between critical distance and empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Patton's 'empathic neutrality' </li></ul>
    4. 4. Three Methods <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Case study research </li></ul>
    5. 5. Selecting <ul><li>Not seeking representativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic study - for its own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental or extrinsic study </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic is pre-selected </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental - choose on basis of maximising what we can learn, ease of access, openness to our enquiry </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Principles of the Interview <ul><li>Don’t put ideas into their heads - access their perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>For motives and informal procedures </li></ul><ul><li>For contradictions between attitudes and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Gives respondents time to reflect </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Principles of the Focus Group <ul><li>Reliance on interaction within the group </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher acting as moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Group may influence nature of data it produces </li></ul><ul><li>Less depth and detail about experience and opinions </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Principles of Case Study Research <ul><li>Qualitative observation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Naturalistic fieldwork’ </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated system </li></ul><ul><li>A bounded system </li></ul>
    9. 9. Planning the Interview <ul><li>Consider time, cost, your skill </li></ul><ul><li>Identify respondents –availability, approachability </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality and anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot interview - clarity, relevance, best order </li></ul>
    10. 10. Planning the Focus Group <ul><li>Composition of groups </li></ul><ul><li>Number of groups </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity of background, not attitudes </li></ul>
    11. 11. Planning the Case Study <ul><li>Identifying the case </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Planning with gatekeepers </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame </li></ul>
    12. 12. Interview Practice <ul><li>Establish rapport - avoid jargon, be honest </li></ul><ul><li>Explore questions fully </li></ul><ul><li>How to take more than notes </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul>
    13. 13. Focus Group Practice <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured or structured with probes </li></ul><ul><li>Ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Low moderator involvement </li></ul>
    14. 14. Case Study Practice <ul><li>Observing </li></ul><ul><li>Examining meaning and redirecting observation - progressive focusing </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulation through multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews and documents? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Concluding <ul><li>Understand what and how the actors understand </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve multiple realities </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve different - even contradictory - views of what is happening </li></ul>
    16. 16. Reading <ul><li>McCracken, Grant (1988) The Long Interview . Newbury Park, Calif. and London: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, David L. (1988) Focus Groups as Qualitative Research . Newbury Park, Calif. and London: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Stake, Robert E. (1995) The Art of Case Study Research. Newbury Park, Calif. and London: Sage. </li></ul>

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