Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action

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Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapters in book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XVI: History of Learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XVII Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ppts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Learnintrohistory, 3. Operant cond. . </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning a reinforcer follows an action and is based on a voluntary response. Which differs from classical conditioning which is based on an involuntary, reflexive response.
  3. 3. Operant conditioning=instrumental learning= goal-directed learning. Definitions <ul><li>The consequence of behavior allowing one to be more efficient in future. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to learn about the relationship between behaviors and consequences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Learning that occurs when a response made by an animal is somehow reinforced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An animal must undertake some action or response in order for the conditioning process to produce learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment vs. Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of effect and positive reinforcement. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Procedures of operant conditioning involve 3 things <ul><li>1. environmental context (situation dependent) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Johnny behaves at school but not at home) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. behavior in that context </li></ul><ul><li>3. event (consequence) that follows that behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(He gets away with it at home). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Operant conditioning <ul><li>An observed change in behavior after a behavior is followed by an event </li></ul><ul><li>Thales (640BC). The mule carrying salt slipped in river and load was lightened. So he did that on subsequent trips. (What to do? Thales put in sponges!= made the load heavier!) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Operant- a history of boxes! <ul><li>Lubbock- 1882- problem boxes and mazes </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike-problem boxes and mazes - how much time to escape. Later he made mazes </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner- the Skinner box </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thorndike
  9. 9. B.F. Skinner <ul><ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazine training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shaping </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Skinner
  11. 11. <ul><li>Inter observer Bias is caused by each individuals unique perception and </li></ul><ul><li>view of situations and the lack of a specific definition of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>being observed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Magazine training will go on with your rats outside of the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>This training has consisted of clicking on the lever when the rat approaches the magazine and then placing the food in the magazine </li></ul><ul><li>immediatley following the click. Over time the rats will go to the magazine when they hear the click. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Law of Effect <ul><li>Response followed by satisfaction more firmly connected with situation and more likely to recur. </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by discomfort, less likely to recur. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Motivation or Drive are important for operant conditioning to be effective. What are they? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Motivation <ul><li>= a goal or an incentive. reinforcers are sources of incentive motivation (e.g. Money). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We adjust our behaviors when we receive feedback --for selecting the behavior that will achieve that goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. studying to get a good grade in class). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Drive – an inferred psychological process <ul><li>arises from internal need </li></ul><ul><li>An intervening variable </li></ul>
  17. 17. An intervening variable- <ul><li>links independent variable (internal state, need) and dependent variable (behavior). </li></ul><ul><li>IDV DV </li></ul><ul><li>IV </li></ul>
  18. 18. John eats 3 Big Macs. What is the Intervening variable? <ul><li>A. thirst </li></ul><ul><li>B.* hunger </li></ul><ul><li>C. incentive value </li></ul><ul><li>D. reinforcer </li></ul>
  19. 19. Terms of operant conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcer- changes rate of response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Reinforcement <ul><li>Presentation of a stimulus in tempora l relation with a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A stimulus that produces a change in the strength of the behavior by virtue of its relationship to a CS (Pavlovian) or behavior (operant). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reinforcer <ul><li>An event that increases the rate or probability of occurrence of that behavior when that event is presented or removed. </li></ul><ul><li>To reinforce a behavior is to create an arrangement between that behavior and a reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is cheesecake always a reinforcer? Depends on person, and event. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Reinforcers <ul><li>Primary- requires no experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food, sex, light, going outside, looking at face </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary (conditioned)-due to Pavlovian conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(oysters?, wine?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to change desires smoking, sexual etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Differential reinforcement <ul><li>Only behaviors that satisfy certain criteria are reinforced. (others are not). </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of opening a stuck door, using key in tricky lock, hitting golf balls, shooting baskets etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Operant
  25. 25. Premack -- all reinforcement involves the opportunity to do something. <ul><li>Engaging in eating, not the food. </li></ul><ul><li>Study with Children- pinball (operators) or candy (eaters). Made availability dependent on less likely response (can’t play till eat etc). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food served as a reinforcer only when consuming it occurred at a higher rate than the other activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spillberger at UF rewarded students who had been performing badly with what they wanted. Basketball for the guys, fashion and makeup for the girls. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. extinction <ul><li>Discontinue the consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior ceases </li></ul><ul><li>If reintroduce at later time to situation behavior reoccurs = spontaneous recovery </li></ul>
  27. 27. Resistance to extinction <ul><li>How long it takes to cease performing an action when consequence no longer occurs </li></ul>
  28. 28. Effects of extinction on behavior <ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul><ul><li>a rapid reacquisition of extinguished behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence (regression)- remove dominant behavior and go back to extinguished behavior. (smoking, eating etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of behavior are maintained during extinction (i.e. does not undo effects of prior positive reinforcement). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Shaping <ul><li>Rewarding closer and closer approximations to the final behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>method of successive approximations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(get your rat to turn yellow!) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Chaining <ul><li>Train the last action in a sequence first (backward chaining). </li></ul><ul><li>Rats climb a wire, climb onto platform, walk tightrope, exit and run down ramp </li></ul>
  31. 32. Schedules of partial reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed ratio (FR) </li></ul><ul><li>Variable-Ratio (VR) </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-Interval (FI) </li></ul><ul><li>Variable-Interval (VI) </li></ul>
  32. 33. Fixed ratio (FR) <ul><li>Fixed # responses for reward </li></ul><ul><li>FR5=5 Responses for reward </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reinforcement pause (PRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk up a flight of stairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on commission. Must sell 5 TVs to get paid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a triple toe loop for applause </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Variable-Ratio (VR) <ul><li>Perform target behavior a certain number times but number varies around an average </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Fixed interval schedule (FI) <ul><li>The first occurrence of the behavior after a specified interval of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a PRP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>followed by increasing rate of behavior (scallop) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abrupt transition to terminal rate of behavior (break and run). </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. FI <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cramming for a test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put it off and study the night before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baking cookies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can’t eat till 10 minutes is up, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Variable-interval VI <ul><li>Interval varies around an average. </li></ul><ul><li>Example, waiting for a call to go through. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Adjust to schedules of reinforcement <ul><li>Depends on prior experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to know in workforce. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might not get high rate of performance expecting. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Behavioral Persistence <ul><li>Resistance to extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of training and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminability and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude of reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction of avoidance conditioning (flooding, implosion therapy). </li></ul>
  39. 40. Interresponse times=IRTs <ul><li>Time between successive actions </li></ul><ul><li>Short IRTs can be more efficient e.g., if blow up balloon, pump up tire, start a gas motor etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Long IRTs can also be useful. Can teach patience, slow down eating. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(species differences. Humans can be more patient than pigeons!) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Terms in operant conditioning <ul><li>Operants - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviors affected by consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different behaviors can still be the same operant. (remove honey with finger, knife, shake jar etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[Respondents- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors elicited by stimuli ( CC )] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signals a behavior-consequence relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(for both operant and CC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red light, green light etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Getting a good grade in a class is an example of: <ul><li>A. a CS </li></ul><ul><li>B. a UCS </li></ul><ul><li>*C. a reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>D. an operant </li></ul>
  42. 43. Procedures in operant conditioning <ul><li>Appetitive- seek </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive- avoid </li></ul>
  43. 44. Four varieties of operant conditioning <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment by Application </li></ul><ul><li>Omission Training </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement (punishment) </li></ul><ul><li>escape conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>avoidance conditioning </li></ul>
  44. 45. 4 types operant conditioning deliver / remove + - -- Negative reinforcement (removal of - consequence) -+ Punishment [deliver – (aversive) consequence] +- Omission training (removal of + consequence) negative punishment ++ Positive reinforcement [deliver + (positive) consequence]
  45. 46. operant conditioning situations -- Negative reinforcement (remove aversive consequence, remove dunce cap, remove from time-out, from jail). -+ Punishment (deliver aversive consequence, spanking; increase in taxes; audits, jail) +- Omission training (remove TV, games, pay) ++ Positive reinforcement (good grade for studying; bribery; lobbying)
  46. 47. Spanking (punishment) It is… <ul><li>Expedient </li></ul><ul><li>Stops behavior right then </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t waste time with Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can release anger and Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares child for the “Tough World” </li></ul>
  47. 48. Studies that show Effects of Spanking <ul><li>Spanking and Adult Depression </li></ul><ul><li>-Men punished by spanking had depressive symptoms, and they increased with the increase of spanking. </li></ul><ul><li>-Suicidal thoughts in adulthood were at an increase when spanking was used at the teenage years. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanking and Child Anti-Social Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>-Children spanked 3 times a week had higher levels of anti-social behavior 2-4 years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanking and Child IQ </li></ul><ul><li>-Children who are spanked tend to have lower IQ’s four years later. </li></ul><ul><li>( The Family Research Laboratory of the University of New Hampshire) </li></ul>
  48. 49. Spanking linked with Adult Addictions and Psychiatric Problems. <ul><li>Dr. Harriet McMillan of McMaster University in Canada </li></ul>16.7% 12.6% 7.5% More than one disorder * 13.2% 10.2% 5.8% Alcohol abuse or addiction 6.9% 4.8% 4.6% Major depression 21.3% 18.8% 16.3% Anxiety Sometimes/often spanked Rarely spanked Never spanked Adult disorder
  49. 50. childhood punishment <ul><li>88 studies suggested that future problems such as poorer moral internalization, relationship problems, aggression, and abuse of their own children were linked to childhood punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>One positive outcome of the studies examined was that children responded quickly and immediately when they were spanked. </li></ul>Dr. Elizabeth Gershoff of Columbia University
  50. 51. Problems with Spanking <ul><li>Does not Increase long lasting positive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Does not Allow bad behavior to be remembered </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches children how to deal with future problems in a violent way </li></ul><ul><li>Causes trauma which could lead to Psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing Role of Parents is at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to increased risk of Criminal acts within children </li></ul><ul><li>Children may forget the trauma, but not the acts of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn that they can misbehave as long as their parents are not around </li></ul><ul><li>Never learn how to deal with problems the correct way </li></ul>
  51. 52. Other Methods <ul><li>Ignore bad behaviors and give attention to the positive ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Take away privileges such as going outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Step between two children who may be arguing to separate them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use time out as a cooling off period for you and the child. </li></ul>
  52. 53. allow children to suffer natural consequences. <ul><li>Use a visual aid for good behaviors such as a chart. </li></ul><ul><li>If you ignore bad behavior the child will get tired of performing the behavior. </li></ul>Dr. Steven Parker
  53. 54. Yoking <ul><li>The behavior of one of the individuals determines the delivery of the reinforcer to both of them. Promotes team work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Huskies; Dolphins who communicated across a visual barrier). </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Differences between Pavlovian and operant conditioning <ul><li>Pavlovian (CC) </li></ul><ul><li>UCS evokes UCR + soon </li></ul><ul><li>CS evokes CR </li></ul><ul><li>It is the relationship between these events </li></ul><ul><li>Operant – </li></ul><ul><li>a spontaneous behavior that produces an effect </li></ul><ul><li>It is the relationship between the behavior and the consequence </li></ul>
  55. 56. Contrast effects <ul><li>Incentive contrast- overshooting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase salary, reduce salary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral contrast- different rewards for different behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. behavior for one increases or decreases, behavior for other does opposite . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Want friend to say positive things, reward positive and ignore negative. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In pain clinics: talk about weather etc. not about the pain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Jim worked for United and really liked his job until he was forced to take a pay cut. This is an example of: <ul><li>A.* incentive contrast </li></ul><ul><li>B. behavioral contrast </li></ul><ul><li>C. hill-climbing </li></ul><ul><li>D. secondary conditioning </li></ul>
  57. 58. Jim is trying to earn tenure. He notices others only get it by research productivity rather than by teaching. Therefore Jim concentrates on his research. This is an example of: <ul><li>A. *behavioral contrast </li></ul><ul><li>B. Incentive motivation </li></ul><ul><li>C. Backward conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>D. Lack of drive </li></ul>
  58. 59. Feedback <ul><li>Critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Give performance evaluations immediately </li></ul><ul><li>It alone can serve as a reinforcer </li></ul>
  59. 60. Sue and Bob are bosses but Sue seems to get better performance from her employees. This may be because. <ul><li>*Sue gives constant feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Sue gives an annual evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Sue has little control over raises </li></ul><ul><li>Sue is a good at delegating and leaves people on their own </li></ul>
  60. 61. Hill-climbing <ul><li>A method for adjusting behavior based on successive comparisons of one’s current situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Pick-up line doesn’t seem to be working. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An adaptive mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation mechanism called kinesis (movements comparing current position). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. rolling rock up a hill, trying to open a door, getting stuck package out of a vending machine. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. How can you increase likelihood a child will try eating novel foods? <ul><li>A. only praise when try new foods </li></ul><ul><li>B. modeling behavior </li></ul><ul><li>C. wait until they are really hungry and offer only strange food then </li></ul><ul><li>D. shock them when they eat familiar foods </li></ul><ul><li>E.* all of above </li></ul>
  62. 63. Usefulness of operant conditioning: Settings in which token economy has been useful <ul><li>Psychiatric Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Residential facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Classrooms </li></ul>
  63. 64. Advantages of a token economy <ul><li>Easy to set up </li></ul><ul><li>Highly structured –good for ADHD, autism etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens can be used for many things </li></ul><ul><li>Tokens are easily portable </li></ul><ul><li>Learn “earning and saving” skills. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Guidelines for token economy <ul><li>Target behavior must be identified </li></ul><ul><li>What item will be the token? </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule of reinforcement : FI, FR are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange rate must be determined </li></ul><ul><li>Backup reinforcers must be identified (food, toys etc. See next slide for examples) </li></ul>
  65. 66. Possible classroom rewards <ul><li>Access to hand held video games </li></ul><ul><li>Free time in class </li></ul><ul><li>Computer time </li></ul><ul><li>Small toys </li></ul><ul><li>Field trips </li></ul><ul><li>Working on a bulletin board </li></ul><ul><li>Being in charge of sharing time </li></ul><ul><li>Passing out books </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as a line leader </li></ul><ul><li>Leading the morning pledge to the flag </li></ul><ul><li>Leading songs </li></ul><ul><li>Being captain of a team </li></ul><ul><li>Helping in the cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting the custodian </li></ul><ul><li>Helping the librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Extra recess time </li></ul><ul><li>Playing games </li></ul><ul><li>Legos </li></ul><ul><li>Art projects </li></ul><ul><li>Access to science area </li></ul><ul><li>Helping correct work of others </li></ul><ul><li>Erasing the chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>Running the copy machine </li></ul><ul><li>Stapling papers together </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding the fish or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Raising or lowering flag </li></ul><ul><li>Emptying wastebaskets </li></ul><ul><li>Operating a projector </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting papers </li></ul><ul><li>Giving message over the intercom </li></ul><ul><li>Going to the library </li></ul><ul><li>Using a typewriter </li></ul>
  66. 67. Staff training for token economy <ul><li>give clear instructions, </li></ul><ul><li>identify target behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>immediacy of token distribution </li></ul><ul><li>use verbal praise with presentation of tokens. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy of response costs ( taking away a token for undesirable behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>fade to “natural contingencies”. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Disadvantages <ul><li>Time and effort organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Training staff </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of purchasing backup reinforcer </li></ul>
  68. 70. Questions… <ul><li>Spanking has NOT been linked with which of the following Disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>B. Major Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Abuse or Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of Spanking, you can… </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use time out </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for Natural Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Above </li></ul>
  69. 71. Questions… <ul><li>Spanking has NOT been linked with which of the following Disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>B. Major Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Abuse or Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of Spanking, you can… </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use time out </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for Natural Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Above </li></ul>
  70. 72. Three Types of Differential Reinforcement: <ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) </li></ul><ul><li>Miltenberger, Raymond G.. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures . Wadsworth 2004. </li></ul>
  71. 73. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): <ul><li>“DRA is used to increase the frequency of desirable behavior, and decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the behaviors that you want to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place undesirable behaviors on Extinction </li></ul></ul>
  72. 74. DRA in Action <ul><li>Old woman in Nursing home: </li></ul><ul><li>Used to say positive things about people and have pleasant conversations </li></ul><ul><li>As time went by she complained more and more, it got so bad the nurses called for the help of a behavior analyst </li></ul><ul><li>The nurses were instructed to give their full attention and smile at the woman while she would say something positive </li></ul><ul><li>If the woman said something negative they were to leave the room or ignore her </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few weeks the woman was saying many more positive than negative things </li></ul>
  73. 75. Why? <ul><li>The woman noticed that when she would complain she would receive more attention from the nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore her negativity was reinforced, and increased in frequency </li></ul>
  74. 76. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) <ul><li>“ The reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is only given after a certain amount of time in which the target problem behavior does not occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After success for each amount of time, the interval is increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem behavior does not occur for longer and longer periods of time </li></ul></ul>
  75. 77. DRO in Action <ul><li>Stories at bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>The problem behavior is thumb sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Having a story read to them was reinforcing to the child </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce the behavior thumb sucking the child would only have a story read to them when they were not sucking their thumb </li></ul><ul><li>After the child would not suck their thumb consistently for a certain interval of time, the interval would be increased </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the thumb sucking behavior did not occur during bedtime at all </li></ul>
  76. 78. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) <ul><li>“Reinforcement is given when the rate of the problem behavior is decreased to a criterion level” </li></ul><ul><li>Used for behaviors that are okay at low rates </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is not to eliminate the behavior altogether, but to reduce it to an acceptable level </li></ul>
  77. 79. DRL in Action <ul><li>There is a student that is a “know it all” </li></ul><ul><li>She raises her hand about 30 times per class period, and none of the other students get a chance to answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to have the student only raise her hand 4 times per class </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher tells the student if she only raises her hand 4 times per class, she will be allowed to erase the blackboard (a known reinforcer for the student) </li></ul><ul><li>If the student raises her hand more than 4 times, she will not be allowed to erase the board </li></ul><ul><li>The student lowers the rate of raising her hand to 4 times per class </li></ul>
  78. 80. Multiple Choice Questions <ul><li>Nancy Nursinghome is complaining more and being friendly less. What type of differential reinforcement should they use to increase her friendly behavior and decrease her complaining? </li></ul><ul><li>A. DRA* </li></ul><ul><li>B. DRO </li></ul><ul><li>C. DRL </li></ul><ul><li>D. DRPeper </li></ul>
  79. 81. Three Types of Differential Reinforcement: <ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) </li></ul><ul><li>Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) </li></ul><ul><li>Miltenberger, Raymond G.. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures . Wadsworth 2004. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): <ul><li>“DRA is used to increase the frequency of desirable behavior, and decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the behaviors that you want to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place undesirable behaviors on Extinction </li></ul></ul>
  81. 83. DRA in Action <ul><li>Old woman in Nursing home: </li></ul><ul><li>Used to say positive things about people and have pleasant conversations </li></ul><ul><li>As time went by she complained more and more, it got so bad the nurses called for the help of a behavior analyst </li></ul><ul><li>The nurses were instructed to give their full attention and smile at the woman while she would say something positive </li></ul><ul><li>If the woman said something negative they were to leave the room or ignore her </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few weeks the woman was saying many more positive than negative things </li></ul>
  82. 84. Why? <ul><li>The woman noticed that when she would complain she would receive more attention from the nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore her negativity was reinforced, and increased in frequency </li></ul>
  83. 85. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) <ul><li>“ The reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is only given after a certain amount of time in which the target problem behavior does not occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After success for each amount of time, the interval is increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem behavior does not occur for longer and longer periods of time </li></ul></ul>
  84. 86. DRO in Action <ul><li>Stories at bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>The problem behavior is thumb sucking </li></ul><ul><li>Having a story read to them was reinforcing to the child </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce the behavior thumb sucking the child would only have a story read to them when they were not sucking their thumb </li></ul><ul><li>After the child would not suck their thumb consistently for a certain interval of time, the interval would be increased </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the thumb sucking behavior did not occur during bedtime at all </li></ul>
  85. 87. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) <ul><li>“Reinforcement is given when the rate of the problem behavior is decreased to a criterion level” </li></ul><ul><li>Used for behaviors that are okay at low rates </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is not to eliminate the behavior altogether, but to reduce it to an acceptable level </li></ul>
  86. 88. DRL in Action <ul><li>There is a student that is a “know it all” </li></ul><ul><li>She raises her hand about 30 times per class period, and none of the other students get a chance to answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to have the student only raise her hand 4 times per class </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher tells the student if she only raises her hand 4 times per class, she will be allowed to erase the blackboard (a known reinforcer for the student) </li></ul><ul><li>If the student raises her hand more than 4 times, she will not be allowed to erase the board </li></ul><ul><li>The student lowers the rate of raising her hand to 4 times per class </li></ul>
  87. 89. Multiple Choice Questions <ul><li>Nancy Nursinghome is complaining more and being friendly less. What type of differential reinforcement should they use to increase her friendly behavior and decrease her complaining? </li></ul><ul><li>A. DRA* </li></ul><ul><li>B. DRO </li></ul><ul><li>C. DRL </li></ul><ul><li>D. DRPeper </li></ul>
  88. 90. Questions continued.. <ul><li>Sammy Thumbsucker sucks his thumb during nap time. Using a reinforcer such as story telling to reinforce the time when he is NOT sucking his thumb would be using what type of differential reinforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>DRA </li></ul><ul><li>DRO* </li></ul><ul><li>DRL </li></ul><ul><li>DRPhil </li></ul>
  89. 91. Applied Behavior Analysis manipulating external events
  90. 92. Definition <ul><li>Applied Behavior Analysis is the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, it is the belief that the caregivers of people with learning disabilities should focus on external events that can be manipulated, rather than internal events that are beyond our control. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied behavior analysis is the process of systematically applying these interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior. </li></ul>
  91. 93. Applied Behavior Analysis is <ul><li>An objective discipline that facilitates research and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Uses operational definitions so that vague terms (i.e. aggression) can be quantified. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses relevant settings to evaluate effectiveness </li></ul>
  92. 94. Socially Significant Behaviors <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Living Skills </li></ul>
  93. 95. Adaptive Skills For Autism <ul><li> Idea </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Increase Behavior frequency </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Teach New Skills </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Maintain Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Transfer Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Restrict Negative Environments </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Restrict Negative Internal Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Reinforce on – task behavior immediately </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Systematic Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Teaching self monitoring procedures </li></ul><ul><li>˚ From completing supervised assignments to completing real world tasks </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Restricting access to certain places </li></ul><ul><li>˚ Reducing self injury </li></ul>
  94. 96. Keys to Effectiveness <ul><li>Early and intensive use of these behavioral techniques while the developing brain is malleable </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent reinforcement is shown to be more important for the learning disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Patience and empathy from caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Use of discrete trials </li></ul>
  95. 97. Discrete Trials <ul><li>A discrete trial is a single cycle of a behaviorally-based instruction routine. A particular trial may be repeated several times in succession, several times a day, over several days until the skill is mastered. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping and Chaining are techniques used to facilitate the completion of each skill. </li></ul>
  96. 98. <ul><li>Have a great weekend </li></ul>

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