<ul><li>Information provided by the news media plays a key role in the construction of people’s perceptions about reality ...
<ul><li>Two useful theoretical frameworks help us to understand how news media influence our perceived social reality </li...
 
<ul><li>Events: discrete occurrences </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Taiwan’s president proposes to join UN.  </li></ul><ul><li>Iss...
Media  Agenda Public  Agenda Policy  Agenda Three Components of Agenda Setting
<ul><li>Content Analysis (1968 presidential campaign coverage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local and national newspapers and TV ...
Media  Agenda Public  Agenda Policy  Agenda
<ul><li>Correlation does not mean causation </li></ul><ul><li>Later studies measured opinions over time </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some people have a higher  need for orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selectivity </li>...
<ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a news story on a given issue sparks (or  primes ) an individual’s memory of related...
Media  Agenda Public  Agenda Policy  Agenda Other Factors (e.g. Ind. Diff.)
 
<ul><li>Recall from an earlier lecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have a mental map of the world.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Ideas and concepts are organized in a logical and hierarchical (schematic) fashion.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schemat...
<ul><li>There are four types of schemata, including:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) person schemata (i.e., interpretations of ...
<ul><li>Media can create new schemata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., American’s perception of the world after 9/11. </li></ul...
 
<ul><li>political socialization  – a developmental process by which young people acquire cognitions, attitudes and behavio...
<ul><li>During adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thought is characterized by an increased capacity and speed of p...
<ul><li>However,  </li></ul><ul><li>as this cognitive pattern is not yet consolidated, adolescents often also engage in ha...
<ul><li>Sources of political knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Media exposure has been identified as an important influence with regard to political socialization.  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to television are related to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political orientatio...
<ul><li>In recent years, media researchers have begun to recognize the importance of cognition in the realm of political s...
<ul><ul><li>However,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such scripts will be different based on the content to which the adolesce...
<ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Political party </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Political involvement  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Some questions to thinking about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s watching? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s watching w...
 
<ul><li>Agenda-setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agenda set by the industry based on ...
<ul><li>Does new media really increase more political participation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently not! </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>More sophisticated knowledge structure </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging fact checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlink...
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New Media Political Socialization

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  • New Media Political Socialization

    1. 2. <ul><li>Information provided by the news media plays a key role in the construction of people’s perceptions about reality (McCombs & Shaw, 1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do we care about our perceptions about reality? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To understand this influence, we must understand at least two processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social processes through which news content is created. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The psychological processes through which this content is digested. </li></ul></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Two useful theoretical frameworks help us to understand how news media influence our perceived social reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agenda-setting theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema theory </li></ul></ul>
    3. 5. <ul><li>Events: discrete occurrences </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Taiwan’s president proposes to join UN. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: ongoing news coverage of a series of events that fit together in a broad category </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. China / US Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeepers: people that decide which events / issues to report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsworthiness: determined by the traditions, practices and values of media professionals </li></ul></ul>
    4. 6. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda Three Components of Agenda Setting
    5. 7. <ul><li>Content Analysis (1968 presidential campaign coverage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local and national newspapers and TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identified prominent news stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on position and length </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asked local Chapel Hill voters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What are the key campaign issues?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Correlation between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Agenda and Public Agenda </li></ul></ul>
    6. 8. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda
    7. 9. <ul><li>Correlation does not mean causation </li></ul><ul><li>Later studies measured opinions over time </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence shows that media sets the agenda for the public </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Iyengar & Kinder experiments) </li></ul><ul><li>but . . . </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some people have a higher need for orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Agenda Setters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the media ‘gatekeepers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public relations professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the media doesn’t report the news, they report news stories </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a news story on a given issue sparks (or primes ) an individual’s memory of related issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opinions are a result of both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the news story cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the primed memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Middle East & unstable political situation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda Other Factors (e.g. Ind. Diff.)
    12. 15. <ul><li>Recall from an earlier lecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have a mental map of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two separate approaches to mental representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic representation (schema) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associationistic representation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 16. <ul><li>Ideas and concepts are organized in a logical and hierarchical (schematic) fashion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schemata are “cognitive structures of organized prior knowledge, abstracted from experience with specific instances; schemata guide the processing of new information and the retrieving of stored information” (Fiske & Linville, 1980, p. 543). </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>There are four types of schemata, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) person schemata (i.e., interpretations of individuals’ psychology), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) self-schemata (i.e., information about one’s psychology), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) role schemata (i.e., perceptions about inter-group relations and broad social categories). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., what is a “chief executive”? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., What does a “chief executive” do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., what is Taiwan? A country? A province? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) event schemata (i.e., information about sequences of events in social situations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., what should a government do when attacked by terrorists? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., how is the chief executive of HKSAR elected? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>Media can create new schemata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., American’s perception of the world after 9/11. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Hong Kong’s government structure after handover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media can strengthen existing schemata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., social stereotypes about mainlanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., political beliefs </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. <ul><li>political socialization – a developmental process by which young people acquire cognitions, attitudes and behaviors relating to their political environment. </li></ul><ul><li>adolescence is a time of particular importance for this process because it is a time of great change, including many developmental advances </li></ul><ul><li>Most people form a stable political view during adolescences and usually NEVER change. </li></ul>
    17. 21. <ul><li>During adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thought is characterized by an increased capacity and speed of processing as compared to younger children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an increase in knowledge and an ability to integrate these knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, there is a greater ability in adolescence, as compared to young children, for self-regulation and monitoring as more strict standards are applied by the adolescent. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 22. <ul><li>However, </li></ul><ul><li>as this cognitive pattern is not yet consolidated, adolescents often also engage in hasty generalization and rush to premature judgments based on segmented pieces of information. </li></ul><ul><li>These skills, abilities, and tendencies may be especially relevant as adolescents consider political issues, situations, and decisions and as they integrate political knowledge gathered from various sources. </li></ul>
    19. 23. <ul><li>Sources of political knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEDIA </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. <ul><li>Media exposure has been identified as an important influence with regard to political socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>the media, and television in particular, play a significant role in the creation and reinforcement of political attitudes. </li></ul>
    21. 25. <ul><li>Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to television are related to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes about political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The electoral process, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>issues of military conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gun control policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. <ul><li>In recent years, media researchers have begun to recognize the importance of cognition in the realm of political socialization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We all have schemas about what politic is and how we should participate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One important source from which we can learn these social scripts about political matters is the media. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. <ul><ul><li>However, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such scripts will be different based on the content to which the adolescents are exposed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy news exposure is likely to result in different schemata </li></ul></ul>
    24. 28. <ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Political party </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Political involvement </li></ul>
    25. 29. <ul><li>Some questions to thinking about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s watching? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s watching what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who participates actively in politics? Elders? Youth? The rich? The poor? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do political attitude translate to political action? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 31. <ul><li>Agenda-setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agenda set by the industry based on professional training, political needs, and audience feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow/delayed feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agenda may be set by the user, or other users. (e.g., Blogs , citizen journalism ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instant /real-time feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User generated (unlimited content) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time update </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schema formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New media  Selective exposure  strengthen existing schemata </li></ul></ul>
    27. 32. <ul><li>Does new media really increase more political participation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently not! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual differences becomes more important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political views become more extreme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is more difficult to present objective/unbiased information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows apathetic individuals to completely avoid politics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 33. <ul><li>More sophisticated knowledge structure </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging fact checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification by multiple sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More difficult for politicians and mass media to skew the issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse group of content providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraging civic participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to mobilize citizens (e.g., organizing a protest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay focused on issues of interest </li></ul></ul>

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