Media Literacy


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Media Literacy

  1. 1. Media literacy 101 Frank Baker media educator [email_address] Media Literacy Clearinghouse Berkeley County Reading and Writing Institutes
  2. 2. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>“ It would be a breach of our duties as teachers for us to ignore the rhetorical power of visual forms of media in combination with text and sound…the critical media literacy we need to teach must include evaluation of these media, lest our students fail to see, understand, and learn to harness the persuasive power of visual media.” NCTE Resolution on Visual/Media Literacy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Media literacy 101
  4. 4. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>“ Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messages…yet, they (and their teachers) receive little or no training in the skills of analyzing or re-evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects.” Source: R.Hobbs, Journal Adult & Adolescent Literacy, February 2004 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>American Association of School Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>International Reading Association </li></ul><ul><li>Natl Board of Professional Teaching Standards </li></ul><ul><li>National Council for Teachers of English </li></ul><ul><li>National Middle Schools Association </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership for 21 st Century Skills </li></ul><ul><li>White House Office of National Drug Control Policy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>What is media literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Why should your students become media literate? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>Media literacy is concerned with helping students develop an informed and critical understanding of the nature of mass media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of these techniques . More specifically, it is education that aims to increase the students' understanding and enjoyment of how the media work, how they produce meaning , how they are organized, and how they construct reality . Media literacy also aims to provide students with the ability to create media products.  (Source: Media Literacy Resource Guide, Ministry of Education Ontario, 1997) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What media literacy is:
  9. 9. Media literacy in SC ELA Analyze nonprint sources for accuracy, bias, intent and purpose Demonstrate the ability to distinguish between fact and opinion, to compare and contrast info and ideas, and make inferences in regard to what is viewed Recognize details, setting, characters and cause and effect in material from nonprint sources High School Middle Elementary
  10. 10. Media literacy 101 <ul><li>&quot;If video is how we are communicating and persuading in this new century, why aren't more students writing screenplays as part of their schoolwork?“ Heidi Hayes Jacob </li></ul>
  11. 11. Core Concepts <ul><li>All media are constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Media are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Media convey values and points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences negotiate meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Media = Power + Profit </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Center for Media Literacy </li></ul>
  12. 12. All media are constructed
  13. 13. What is this? No, this is a PHOTOGRAPH of a horse.
  14. 14. Media are constructed using unique languages with their own set of rules <ul><li>Language of film Camera Lights Sound/Music Sets Editing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Media convey values and points-of-view
  16. 16. Audiences negotiate meaning
  17. 17. Media = Power + Profit <ul><li>Big 5 Media FOX (News Corp) NBC (GE) CBS (Viacom) ABC (Disney) CNN (AOL/Time Warner) </li></ul>What are the implications/ramifications if only 5 companies control magazines, newspapers, TV, radio, newspapers, Internet, film, etc.?
  18. 18. Advertiser~Audience <ul><li>This program </li></ul><ul><li>is brought to </li></ul><ul><li>you by the </li></ul><ul><li>sponsor. </li></ul>You are brought to the sponsor by the program.
  19. 19. Critical thinking questions <ul><li>Who produces/pays for media? </li></ul><ul><li>For what purpose(s) was it made? </li></ul><ul><li>For which ‘target audience(s)’? </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques does the messenger </li></ul><ul><li>use to attract attention? </li></ul><ul><li>Who or what is omitted and why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know what it means? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it contain bias or stereotypes? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Techniques
  21. 21. Techniques
  22. 22. Techniques
  23. 23. Techniques
  24. 24. Techniques
  25. 25. Techniques The box of Oreos was not in the original NBC “Friends:” it was placed there virtually for DVD/syndication exposure
  26. 26. Techniques <ul><li>well known case </li></ul><ul><li>of the digital </li></ul><ul><li>creation of a magazine cover </li></ul><ul><li>featuring a woman who does </li></ul><ul><li>not exist </li></ul>
  27. 27. Body Image <ul><li>The subjective concept of one's physical appearance based on self-observation and reactions of others. (American Heritage) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Body Image- Studies <ul><li>Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston found that the more adolescent and pre-adolescent girls read fashion magazines, the more likely they were to diet and to feel unhappy about their bodies. (USA Today 1/18/2006) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Body Image- Statistics <ul><li>69% of teens read a magazine in a typical day </li></ul>Real Teens : A Contemporary Snapshot of Youth Culture ( by George Barna )
  30. 30. Body Image- Statistics <ul><li>42% of 1st-3rd grade girls want to be thinner </li></ul><ul><li>45% of boys and girls in grades 3-6 want to be thinner </li></ul><ul><li>37% have already dieted </li></ul><ul><li>6.9% score in the Eating Disorder range </li></ul><ul><li>51% of 9-10 year old girls feel better about selves when dieting </li></ul><ul><li>9% of 9 year old have vomited to lose weight </li></ul><ul><li>81% of 10 year olds are afraid of being fat </li></ul><ul><li>53% of 13 year old girls are unhappy with their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>78% of 18 year old girls are unhappy with their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The #1 wish of girls 11-17 years old is to lose weight </li></ul><ul><li>source: Body Wars: Making Peace with Women's Bodies by Margo Maine, Ph.D. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Body Image- Studies <ul><li>&quot;....unrealistically thin young women are often used in advertisements for everything from soft drinks to cars..... previous research has already shown that such advertising contributes to negative body images among young girls and women.&quot; (UK News story, Aug. 31, 2005) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Body Image- Studies <ul><li>Males impacted: &quot;Action figures present subtle messages of unrealistic role models of well-sculpted, heavily muscled, 'perfect' bodies that little boys see as their role models.“ Sondra Kronberg, director and co-founder of Eating Disorder Associates Treatment & Referral Centers </li></ul>
  33. 33. Body Image- Studies <ul><li>According to statistics posted by the National Institute on Media and the Family, by age 13,  some 53 percent of American girls are unhappy with their bodies ; that figure grows to 78 percent  by the time girls reach 17. In another study on fifth graders, 10-year-old girls and boys told researchers they were dissatisfied with their own bodies after watching a music video by Britney Spears or a clip from the TV show Friends . And adolescent girls who viewed commercials depicting unrealistically thin models felt &quot;less confident, more angry, and more dissatisfied with their weight and appearance.&quot; </li></ul>
  34. 34. Body Image: Are things changing? <ul><li>New Dove Ad Campaign </li></ul>Just My Size Ad
  35. 35. Body Image-Resources
  36. 36. Other Resources <ul><li> CDC produced curriculum </li></ul>Media Sharp: Analyzing Alcohol & Tobacco Messages