Gary, Indiana : Steel town Megan Nordin Urbs 515 : race, poverty & the urban environment Professor raquel rivera- pinderhu...
<ul><li>This presentation focuses on the steel industry’s cumulative impacts on the city of gary, indiana from its concept...
Gary, indiana : Site location <ul><li>Gary, indiana is located along the lake michigan shoreline,  just east of chicago.  ...
Gary, the “magic City” <ul><li>Gary, named after the president and chairman of u.s. steel works, elbert h. gary, was propo...
Building gary   preliminary preparations   for the steel mills <ul><li>The land proposed for the new mills was comprised o...
Grow, gary, grow….. <ul><li>Gary was conceived and planned at the same time. Visions of a thriving downtown with large bou...
Early Construction … housing <ul><li>Between 1906 and 1909, the gary land company (a subsidairy of u.s. steel works) built...
The steel mills <ul><li>By 1920, u.s.s. gary works contained 12 blast furnaces, 838 coke ovens, 45 open- hearth ovens, 2 2...
The steel making process <ul><li>Each step of the steel making process is unique in its input and output. </li></ul><ul><l...
Process facilities <ul><li>East to west: </li></ul><ul><li>Sintering plant </li></ul><ul><li>Coke ovens  blast furnaces  <...
1. The coke plant <ul><li>In the coke plant, each step of the transformation of coal to coke generates pollutants . </li><...
Sintering plant/ blast furnaces <ul><li>Sintering plants combine iron ore with metallurgic dust to form an agglomerated ch...
Rolling mills: billets, blooms, & slabs <ul><li>Molten steel from the furnaces went to one of several rolling mills, where...
So… who works where ? <ul><li>Well… it’s complicated.  </li></ul><ul><li>originally, eastern european immigrants manned th...
A shift in the labor force <ul><li>By the 1920’s, steel laborers began to form unions.  The unions fought for higher wages...
A Segregated work force <ul><li>By 1928, 79% of the black work force, and 79% of the mexican work force held unskilled lab...
Executive justifications <ul><li>Mexicans toiled in the heat of the open hearth ovens because they were thought to be “ mo...
Population trends <ul><li>Between 1940 and 1970, gary’s african american population went from 18% to 53%.  However, the in...
Gary’s new mayor <ul><li>By 1967, gary elected one on the first black mayors in the nation, richard hatcher.  Despite, the...
Gary’s decline <ul><li>Despite hatcher’s extensive efforts to revitalize gary’s economy, one constraint held strong.  Gary...
So… back to the steel industry… and pollution <ul><li>Where did it go ?  </li></ul>Well…
The pollution stayed Gary’s skyline,  www.chicagostudio.com
Understanding gary’s pollution <ul><li>It is important to understand the magnitude of pollution to air, water, and land du...
Understanding gary’s pollution…cont. <ul><li>What are the pollutants ? </li></ul><ul><li>I mentioned a few before, but her...
Let’s Take a look… A comprehensive table of toxins,  www.rtk.net
Lead high risk areas <ul><li>The high risk areas are mostly in gary, in comparison to the rest of the entire state. </li><...
How do these toxins reach people ? <ul><li>Air pollutants are carried from the factories through smoke and vapor.  They ar...
Who’s at risk ? <ul><li>The entire population of gary is at risk.  However, it’s important to understand what gary’s popul...
Health impacts <ul><li>While the potential health hazards have been carefully identified through hundreds of studies, ther...
Why no data? <ul><li>“…  The hospitals won’t release the data for confidentiality reasons…. but the real problem is lack o...
assumptions <ul><li>We can probably guess a few of the reasons why there is no federal money going to research in gary.  <...
Current actions <ul><li>Uss gary steel works isn’t fooling the epa.  Having already won a lawsuit against the company for ...
<ul><li>…  on our way to chicago, we just </li></ul><ul><li>passed through this town, Gary?  Joe Joseph </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sources: <ul><li>Catlin, Robert. (1993)  Racial Politics and Urban Planning: Gary, Indiana 1980-1989 .  Lexington, Kentuck...
sources…cont. <ul><li>10. .  Improving kids environment.  www.ikecoalition.org  , 4/16/04  </li></ul><ul><li>11.  Indiana ...
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Gary In Steel

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Gary In Steel

  1. 1. Gary, Indiana : Steel town Megan Nordin Urbs 515 : race, poverty & the urban environment Professor raquel rivera- pinderhughes, urban studies & environmental studies program San francisco state university: spring 2004 <ul><li>Permission granted to use the material herein If author, </li></ul><ul><li>course, university, and professor are credited </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>This presentation focuses on the steel industry’s cumulative impacts on the city of gary, indiana from its conception in 1906 to the present. </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed to describe the formation of gary, examining the role the steel industry played in the process. it analyzes the various impacts resulting from steel production, paying particular attention to the social, environmental, and public health effects. </li></ul><ul><li>We start by reviewing the history of gary’s establishment as a city. Then we examine the steel making process itself, carefully identifying the associated environmental and health impacts. Finally, we study those communities that are affected most, dissecting the factor of race, class, and power and its role in the entire process. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gary, indiana : Site location <ul><li>Gary, indiana is located along the lake michigan shoreline, just east of chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to development, gary was nothing more than a few scatterred homes along a railroad line. </li></ul><ul><li>This site was chosen by u.s.s. steel works in 1905 for the location of their new steel mill complex. </li></ul>www.gary.in.us/visitgary.asp
  4. 4. Gary, the “magic City” <ul><li>Gary, named after the president and chairman of u.s. steel works, elbert h. gary, was proposed as the new industrial center of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>213 corporations combined their efforts to form and build u.s.s. gary steel works. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic observers hailed gary as “ the city of the century”, an “ industrial utopia”. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants fled to Gary by the thousands, looking for work. They mostly came from eastern europe. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Building gary preliminary preparations for the steel mills <ul><li>The land proposed for the new mills was comprised of sand dunes, two rivers, and swampland, rich in biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>March 12, 1906, construction began laying out the mills, railroad yards, and harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The dunes were leveled. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The grand Calumet river was relocated forming a </li></ul><ul><li>moat at the southern end of the mill. </li></ul><ul><li>3. 2, 000, 000 yards of concrete were laid, covering </li></ul><ul><li>existing swampland. </li></ul><ul><li>4. 700 ft. along a half–mile strip of the shoreline of </li></ul><ul><li>lake michigan was filled in with concrete . </li></ul><ul><li>5. A 25 foot deep and 250 feet wide ship canal was </li></ul><ul><li>dredged in the harbor. </li></ul>Dredging the ship canal. www. dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel
  6. 6. Grow, gary, grow….. <ul><li>Gary was conceived and planned at the same time. Visions of a thriving downtown with large boulevards and monumental buildings were in the workings immendiatedly. </li></ul>5 th and broadway construction www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel/context/essay3.htm
  7. 7. Early Construction … housing <ul><li>Between 1906 and 1909, the gary land company (a subsidairy of u.s. steel works) built 506 houses of various types. These homes were not affordable for the average steel worker. They mostly housed steel executives and company officials. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913, the company constructed almost 300 additional buildings. Relatively high rents excluded most workers, or caused overcrowding. The bulk of gary’s residents were forced to seek housing elsewhere in the city. </li></ul>By 1908, gary’s population exceeded 10,000. Here’s what the workers were left with. www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel/context/essay2.htm
  8. 8. The steel mills <ul><li>By 1920, u.s.s. gary works contained 12 blast furnaces, 838 coke ovens, 45 open- hearth ovens, 2 25-ton converters, a rail mill, 2 plate mills, 12 merchant mills, an axle mill, a tie plate mill, a steel wheel plant, and a dozen mechanical shops covering over 300,000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>The buildings were comprised of over 100,000 tons of structural steel, 9,000 tons of corrugated sheets, 4,000 squares of tile roofing, and 163,000, 000 bricks. </li></ul>Panorama of steel mills www.dlib.edu/cllections/steel
  9. 9. The steel making process <ul><li>Each step of the steel making process is unique in its input and output. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary works was organized in a east to west fashion, with the finished product completed at the west end. </li></ul><ul><li>Yield and harmful refuse generally declined along the east to west production line. </li></ul>www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel
  10. 10. Process facilities <ul><li>East to west: </li></ul><ul><li>Sintering plant </li></ul><ul><li>Coke ovens blast furnaces </li></ul><ul><li>Open heARTH OVENS INGOT MOLDS </li></ul><ul><li>IGNOT STRIPPERS SOAKING PITS </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOMS, SLABS, BILLETS Merchant finishing mills </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1. The coke plant <ul><li>In the coke plant, each step of the transformation of coal to coke generates pollutants . </li></ul><ul><li>1. As coal bakes at 2,000 degrees, suspended carbon </li></ul><ul><li>particles, tars, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide , </li></ul><ul><li>methane, and sulfur dioxide escape from the ovens . </li></ul><ul><li>2. The product is cooled with water and steam lifts </li></ul><ul><li>tiny coke particles into the air . </li></ul><ul><li>3. The water used retains coke residue, along </li></ul><ul><li>with ammonia and phenol . </li></ul><ul><li>When waste recovery and recycling allowed for profit through other applications, it was utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>usually not. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sintering plant/ blast furnaces <ul><li>Sintering plants combine iron ore with metallurgic dust to form an agglomerated chunk strong enough to bake in the furnace . </li></ul><ul><li>1. The process releases small particles of iron, carbon, </li></ul><ul><li>limestone dust, hydrogen sullfide, and sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide into the air . </li></ul><ul><li>Blast furnaces and open hearth furnaces yielded slag, a unwanted solid impurity that collects above the molten metal. </li></ul><ul><li>1. It’s estimated that the blast furnaces alone produce </li></ul><ul><li>one million tons of slag annually. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rolling mills: billets, blooms, & slabs <ul><li>Molten steel from the furnaces went to one of several rolling mills, where it was shaped into billets, blooms, or slabs. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Rolling mills produce unwanted scales that are </li></ul><ul><li>blasted away with water jets into lagoons. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The scales settle and are collected. The remaining </li></ul><ul><li>water is pumped into the grand calumet river. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Another cleansing technique, known as pickling </li></ul><ul><li>produces sulfuric acid fumes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. So… who works where ? <ul><li>Well… it’s complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>originally, eastern european immigrants manned the eastern end of the plant, where most hazardous processes occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>american born whites manned the cleaner western portion of the facilities and held management positions. </li></ul><ul><li>as time went on, the demographics of the work force changed drastically. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A shift in the labor force <ul><li>By the 1920’s, steel laborers began to form unions. The unions fought for higher wages and safer working conditions. At the same time, african americans were flocking to the north in great numbers, where labor opportunities were abundant. As american born and foreign born laborers were striking, african americans were being used as replacements. The african american population began to hold a strong place in the steel industry. At the time, this population was willing to work at lower wages than their white counterparts. This started a new shift, moving the white immigrants out of the most hazardous positions and the non-white immigrants and african americans into them. </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Segregated work force <ul><li>By 1928, 79% of the black work force, and 79% of the mexican work force held unskilled labor positions. Only 26% of the white work force held unskilled positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Following, the black workers earned only 85 cents perhour for every $ 1 that their white counterparts earned. </li></ul><ul><li>third, the unskilled labor positions held the highest health hazard exposures, however the lowest wages. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Executive justifications <ul><li>Mexicans toiled in the heat of the open hearth ovens because they were thought to be “ more suited for the heat ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks braved the coke ovens because “ negroes shine in the coke oven work where there is much dust, etc.” ( a u.s. steel executive ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ negroes are nice, simple people. I don’t approve of using them for skilled work…. Let them scramble for the unskilled jobs.” ( a calumet steel executive, 1945 ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Population trends <ul><li>Between 1940 and 1970, gary’s african american population went from 18% to 53%. However, the increase in overall population only changed slightly. More blacks weren’t necessarily moving to gary, but rather whites were leaving. </li></ul><ul><li>As the post-war extended boom came to an end in the 60’s the domestic industrial sector declined. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously, professional services and retail began moving to the suburbs. The white population both led and followed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gary’s new mayor <ul><li>By 1967, gary elected one on the first black mayors in the nation, richard hatcher. Despite, the majority black population, hatcher’s election was not accepted well. Even more businesses relocated outside of gary. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1970 census showed the first population decline in gary since its conception. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to political pressure, the state of indiana removed highway signs directing drivers to gary. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite, hatcher’s opponents he was able to attract over $300 million from the federal govt. for various redevelopment projects. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gary’s decline <ul><li>Despite hatcher’s extensive efforts to revitalize gary’s economy, one constraint held strong. Gary was built on the steel industry and although the industry itself did not suffer a decline, technological advancements resulted in a lowered need for a manned workforce. The number of steel jobs fell from 30,000 in 1974 to fewer thAN 6,000 BY 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSEQUENTLY, THE RETAIL SECTOR SUFFERED A DECLINE AS WELL. GARY BEGAN TO BE FILLED WITH BOARDED UP STOREFRONTS. </li></ul>photos, www.darkpassage.com/postmortems/gary.htm
  21. 21. So… back to the steel industry… and pollution <ul><li>Where did it go ? </li></ul>Well…
  22. 22. The pollution stayed Gary’s skyline, www.chicagostudio.com
  23. 23. Understanding gary’s pollution <ul><li>It is important to understand the magnitude of pollution to air, water, and land due to steel production. Let’s look at a map of the area encompassed by the steel production. </li></ul>The green line outlines the industrial area of gary, www.in.gov/doc/assistance/gary.htm
  24. 24. Understanding gary’s pollution…cont. <ul><li>What are the pollutants ? </li></ul><ul><li>I mentioned a few before, but here’s the largely incomplete list of past and current solid, liquid and gas emissions: </li></ul><ul><li>aluminum, ammonia, anthracene, benzene, calcium cyanamide, copper compounds, cyanide compunds, ethylbezene, hydrocholorun acid, lead compounds, maganese compounds, molybdenum trioside, naphthalane, phenol…. The list goes on and on. </li></ul><ul><li>Well, I’m sure these toxins are under control. It is the year 2004… Here’s a current chart. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Let’s Take a look… A comprehensive table of toxins, www.rtk.net
  26. 26. Lead high risk areas <ul><li>The high risk areas are mostly in gary, in comparison to the rest of the entire state. </li></ul><ul><li>If you recall the industrial zoning map of gary, the majority of the high risk areas border the steel facilities. </li></ul>www.ikecoalition.org
  27. 27. How do these toxins reach people ? <ul><li>Air pollutants are carried from the factories through smoke and vapor. They are in the air that people breathe. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground pollutants, no matter how carefully contained, can leach or leak through their containment systems into water sources or directly into the earth that people might either come in direct or indirect contact with. Food grown in contaminated soil can affect those who consume it. </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution can affect both the drinking water supply directly and the food chain supply through aquatic life. </li></ul>www.gary.in.us/visitgary.asp
  28. 28. Who’s at risk ? <ul><li>The entire population of gary is at risk. However, it’s important to understand what gary’s population encompasses. </li></ul><ul><li>Current data shows that slighlty over 80% of gary’s population is african american. Around 30% of the population is below the national poverty status guidline. </li></ul>www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel
  29. 29. Health impacts <ul><li>While the potential health hazards have been carefully identified through hundreds of studies, there is no to little data on the actual impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>I contacted the director of the northwest indiana environmental justice resource center, tim sutherland, a number of times looking for specific data. I was interested in current and past cancer rates, asthma rates, etc. He had no information for me. In fact a group of nursing students at the university is currently working on getting a grant to do such research. I was shocked to find out that a city that during wwII was the most polluted city in the nation had no health impact data. Currently, uss gary works is amongst the top ten stationary sources of pollution in the nation. At one point, it was the leader, yet no health impact data. Hmmmm ? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why no data? <ul><li>“… The hospitals won’t release the data for confidentiality reasons…. but the real problem is lack of funding. There are many environmental and community organizations advocating for citizens of Gary, but they’re all volunteer based. We need federal money, and no one’s been able to get any….” </li></ul><ul><li>tim sutherland </li></ul>
  31. 31. assumptions <ul><li>We can probably guess a few of the reasons why there is no federal money going to research in gary. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Uss gary steel works is the largest steel manufacturer in the country. Therefore, probably holding a lot of political lobbying power. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gary holds no other corporate headquarters, essentially translating to no other capital. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gary’s residents are poor, undereducated african americans, the group most commonly pushed to the wayside. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Activists are scarce in gary. </li></ul><ul><li>These are my own assumptions, not based on empirical data. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Current actions <ul><li>Uss gary steel works isn’t fooling the epa. Having already won a lawsuit against the company for illegal dumping in the calumet river, the epa is monitoring as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Uss gary steel works is currently in “non-attainment” status of epa ground-level ozone requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary and the grand calumet area has been recognized as an area for great concern by the epa in regards to water pollution. Efforts to remedy the situation have been ongoing since the early 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, u.s.s. gary works can afford to pay fines rather than meet environmental standards. This pattern will inevitably continue. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>… on our way to chicago, we just </li></ul><ul><li>passed through this town, Gary? Joe Joseph </li></ul><ul><li>Crazy place, a lot of the buildings 1122 elm </li></ul><ul><li>are boarded up, the whole town somewhere else </li></ul><ul><li>smells. There must be over a dozen </li></ul><ul><li>factories. Isn’t Michael Jackson from </li></ul><ul><li>Gary? What happened to this town ? </li></ul><ul><li>People shouldn’t live here. It’s not right. </li></ul>www.thepostcard.com
  34. 34. Sources: <ul><li>Catlin, Robert. (1993) Racial Politics and Urban Planning: Gary, Indiana 1980-1989 . Lexington, Kentucky, University Press of Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago studio online. www.chicagostudio.com , 4/16/04 </li></ul><ul><li>Delta Institute Website. Pollution Prevention Initiative: Voluntary Agreement www.delta-institute.org/publications/mercuryagreement.pdf , 3/05/04 Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Emagazine Website. Cities that Smell www.emagazine.com , 2/15/04 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency Website. Brownfields Job Training and Development Demonstration Pilot www.epa.gov.go/brownfields/pdfjtgary.pdf , 3/07/04 </li></ul><ul><li>Fuller, Henry. (1907) An Industrial Utopia: Building Gary, Indiana, to Order. Harper’s Weekly. October 12: p.1482-1483, 1495 </li></ul><ul><li>Greer, Edward. (1979) Big Steel: Black Politics and Corporate Power in Gary, Indiana . Indiana, Monthly Press Review </li></ul><ul><li>Gary, indiana website. www.gary.in.us/visitgary.asp , 4/4/04 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurley, Andrew. (1995) Environmental Inequalities: Class, Race, and Industrial Pollution in Gary, Indiana 1945-1980 . North Carolina, University of Carolina Press </li></ul>
  35. 35. sources…cont. <ul><li>10. . Improving kids environment. www.ikecoalition.org , 4/16/04 </li></ul><ul><li>11. Indiana dept. of revenue. www.in.gov/doc/assistance/gary.htm , 4/16/04 </li></ul><ul><li>12. Indiana university digital library. www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel , 2/15/04 </li></ul><ul><li>13. State of Indiana Website. Industrialization and Air Pollution www.state.in.us/nrc_dnr/lakemichigan/airqual/airqual.html , 3/05/04 </li></ul><ul><li>14. Northwest Indiana Environmental Justice Resource CenterWebsite. www.iun.edu/~lib/justice.htm , 2/15/04 </li></ul><ul><li>15. Postcards. www.thepostcard.com , 4/16/04 </li></ul><ul><li>16. Preserve indiana.. www.preserveindiana.com , 2/15/04 </li></ul><ul><li>17. Rtk network. www.rtk.net , 4/02/04 </li></ul><ul><li>18. Urban post mortems. www.darkpassage.com/poatmortems/gary.htm 2/15/04 </li></ul><ul><li>19. U.S. Gary Steel Works Photograph Collection 1906-1971. Indiana University website. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/collections/steel/context/text/06.html 3/3/04 </li></ul><ul><li>20. Waylon brinck online gallery. www.waylon-art.com , 4/4/04 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>

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