Fashion History


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  • Fashion History

    1. 1. Chapter 1 What Is Fashion? Introducing Fashion Fashion History
    2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Explain the different definitions of fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the merchandise categories of fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between style and design. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the needs satisfied by clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the early history of clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Name some influential people in fashion industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify specific styles in the 20 th century. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Definitions of Fashion Fashion Defined Section 1.1 In the apparel industry, fashion is the existing type of clothing that is preferred by a large segment of the public. To many people, fashion is a current trend that is popular for frivolous reasons. To some people, fashion is a precise style of dress or behavior that is acceptable in one year, but not in another. To retailers, fashion is whatever is currently selling. To sociologists, fashion represents a way of social interaction and status seeking.
    4. 4. Merchandise Categories <ul><li>Fashion retailers group merchandise into categories—basic merchandise and fashion merchandise . </li></ul>fashion merchandise goods that are popular at a particular time Section 1.1 Staple items are in the basic merchandise category. staple items basic merchandise that customers purchase on a regular basis
    5. 5. Fashion Basics <ul><li>To be successful in the fashion industry, designers, producers, marketers, and retailers must have an understanding of basic fashion terms, such as style and design . </li></ul>style a particular shape or type of apparel item identified by the distinct features that make it unique Section 1.1 design a particular or unique version of a style because of a specific arrangement of the basic design elements
    6. 6. Fashion Basics <ul><li>A retail customer may select a garment based on its color. </li></ul>garment any article of clothing, such as a dress, suit, coat, or sweater Section 1.1
    7. 7. Fashion Basics <ul><li>The three dimensions of color are: </li></ul>Section 1.1 <ul><li>Hue —the quality of the color </li></ul><ul><li>Value —the lightness or darkness of a color </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity —the brightness or dullness of a color </li></ul>
    8. 8. Fashion Basics <ul><li>Line is an element of design that directs the path of eye movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape , or silhouette, is the overall form or outline of a garment. </li></ul><ul><li>Texture is how the surface of a material, or fabric, feels and looks. </li></ul><ul><li>Function refers to the intended use or purpose of an object. </li></ul>Section 1.1
    9. 9. Design Elements Fashion Basics Section 1.1 Color Line Shape Texture
    10. 10. What are Fashion Products? <ul><li>Fashion is anything that has strong customer appeal at a given time. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually determined by personal taste. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste refers to the current opinion of what is attractive and appropriate for an individual and occasion. </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Are Fashion Products? <ul><li>Fashion products include: </li></ul>Section 1.1 Clothing Accessories Home Furnishings
    12. 12. Economic Importance <ul><li>Fashion can be a reflection of the economic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>When people are unable to satisfy their basic needs for food and shelter, style becomes less important. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion serves as a historical record of culture and lifestyle. </li></ul>Section 1.1
    13. 13. <ul><li>What is the difference between style and design? </li></ul><ul><li>What are four basic elements of design? </li></ul><ul><li>How do economic conditions affect fashion? </li></ul>1. 2. 3. Section 1.1 1.1
    14. 14. Earliest Clothing <ul><li>The earliest clothing dates from about 20,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest clothes were developed primarily for protection from the weather and environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest clothes were made of fur, animal skin, leaves, and grass. </li></ul>Section 1.2
    15. 15. Why People Wear Clothes <ul><li>People have three basic clothing needs: </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Physical needs: protection and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological needs: appearance enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs: affiliation and standards </li></ul>
    16. 16. Why Clothing? Why People Wear Clothes Section 1.2 Physical Needs <ul><li>protection </li></ul><ul><li>safety </li></ul>Social Needs <ul><li>affiliation/fitting in </li></ul><ul><li>standards </li></ul>Psychological Needs <ul><li>identity </li></ul><ul><li>adornment </li></ul><ul><li>cultural identity </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sources of Clothing History <ul><li>The evolution of dress can represent a visual history of a culture. </li></ul>Section 1.2 Sources of clothing history include: Actual garments Old paintings Fashion publications Photographs Written publications
    18. 18. Fashion Through the Ages <ul><li>During the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, garments began being mass-produced. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of photography influenced the spread of styles. </li></ul><ul><li>The fashion magazine Vogue was first published in 1892. </li></ul>Section 1.2
    19. 19. Historical Trendsetters <ul><li>Elizabeth I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing indicator of social status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent life-size fashion dolls to every European court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trendsetter for ornate styles </li></ul></ul>Section 1.2
    20. 20. Historical Trendsetters <ul><li>George Bryan “Beau” Brummell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dandyism </li></ul></ul>dandyism during the 1880s, a style of dress for men and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement Section 1.2 <ul><li>Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understated elegance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Beatles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mop-top” hairstyles </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The Early 1900s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>In 1909, Vogue features new loose-fitting clothing for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Women stop wearing corsets. </li></ul><ul><li>Skirts get slightly shorter. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of rayon leads to more functional clothing. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1920s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel introduces sportswear garments and trousers for everyday wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Chanel promotes the style of the “flappers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chanel introduces the “little black dress.” </li></ul><ul><li>The “one-hour dress” is invented by the Women’s Fashion Institute. </li></ul><ul><li>Styles are simpler. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1930s–1950s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Movie stars set trends for hair, makeup, and clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon is invented by DuPont. </li></ul><ul><li>To save fabric during wartime, hemlines become shorter. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple styles represent patriotism during wartime. </li></ul><ul><li>American designers become more prominent. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1930s–1950s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Women’s styles become more traditionally feminine in the 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Dior launches a new style in 1947 called the New Look . </li></ul>New Look a style of the 1940s that featured long hemlines, narrow shoulders, and tightly fitted bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts
    25. 25. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1960s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Social changes, world events, and music affect fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>New synthetic fibers are invented. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippie style appears. </li></ul>hippie style of the 1960s, a fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle and Far East, bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets
    26. 26. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1970s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Disco style appears. </li></ul>disco style of the 1970s, a fashion consisting of gold lam é, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits, and white clothing that glowed under ultraviolet lighting
    27. 27. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1970s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Punk fashion appears. </li></ul>punk fashion of the 1970s, a style featuring intentionally torn clothing worn by young people with limited income, such as students and the unemployed
    28. 28. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1970s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Feminist movement influences women’s styles. </li></ul>feminist movement of the 1970s, the organized effort to establish equal social, economic, and political rights and opportunities for women; influenced women’s fashions with shorter hemlines and the pantsuit for the workplace
    29. 29. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1980s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Professional women adopt “the power look.” </li></ul><ul><li>Business-casual attire appears. </li></ul><ul><li>High-quality products become available at moderate prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretchy, synthetic athletic wear becomes popular. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>The 1990s </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Americans begin dressing less formally. </li></ul><ul><li>Grunge style appears. </li></ul>grunge a style started by the youth culture in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in the early 1990s; it is messy, uncombed, and disheveled <ul><li>Fashion industry begins to lose the ability to dictate trends. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present <ul><li>Fashion Today </li></ul>Section 1.2 <ul><li>Consumers make well-informed choices about what to wear, where to shop, and how much to spend on products. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion makers and marketers need to be more informed and aware of customer wants and needs. </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>What three basic needs are satisfied by the use of clothing? </li></ul><ul><li>How did World War II affect the fashion industry? </li></ul><ul><li>What fashion trends emerged in the 1980s? </li></ul>1. 2. 3. Section 1.2 1-2