Developments Of French Newspaper Publishing


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Developments Of French Newspaper Publishing

  1. 1. Developments of French Newspaper Publishing <ul><li>A general view </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Else Delaunay </li></ul><ul><li>IFLA Newspapers Section </li></ul><ul><li>International Newspapers Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Canberra - 22 February 2005 </li></ul>
  2. 2. A brief introduction <ul><li>Nature of newspapers: </li></ul><ul><li>journalism is involved in all features of life, worldwide, nationally, regionally or locally </li></ul><ul><li>Function of newspapers: </li></ul><ul><li>it interferes with the behaviour of all social, political, economic and cultural groups, in fact it concerns all individuals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Continued <ul><li>General data and features: </li></ul><ul><li>globalization of exchanges leads to harmonizing of life styles in rich countries and results in the internationalization of the media market </li></ul><ul><li>National features are better preserved in writing, whether periodical or not, because they are based on a long writing tradition and use of journalism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Continued <ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of French newspaper publishing: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is based on the very liberal bill of 21st June 1881 when newspaper publishing finally got freedom of expression. Basically it is still the real charter of French newspaper publishing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Reasons of the present stagnation <ul><ul><li>Economic degradation due to fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of incomings </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sales incomings </li></ul><ul><li>for various reasons most daily newspapers show a regular fall in sales, in particular single copy sales (too high prices, cheap information through audiovisual media, free papers, etc.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Newspaper sales in France <ul><li>National Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Single copy: 77 % </li></ul><ul><li>Home delivery and Postal delivery*: 23 % </li></ul><ul><li>*subscriptions represent a smaller part of the national newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>sales </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Single copy: 48 % </li></ul><ul><li>Home delivery*: 38 % </li></ul><ul><li>Postal delivery*: 14 % </li></ul><ul><li>*subscriptions are better off for regional newspapers sales </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Advertising incomings </li></ul><ul><li>most display advertising goes to the magazines, to free papers and to the audiovisual media </li></ul><ul><li>classified advertising shrinks regularly, especially in national newspapers </li></ul>
  9. 9. Written Newsprint Incomings 2003 <ul><li>Turnover in 2003 : 10,25 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>(0.4 % reduction with regard to 2002, principally due to a cutting down of advertising incomings of the daily press) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Continued <ul><li>Sales incomings: 50.4 % = 5,166 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>Single copy: 38.6 % = 3,956 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>Deliveries: 11.8 % = 1,209 billion € </li></ul>
  11. 11. Continued <ul><li>Advertising incomings: </li></ul><ul><li>49,6 % = 5,084 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>(2.5 % reduction with regard to 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Display advertising: 31.7 % = 3,249 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>Classified advertising: 17.9 % = 1,835 billion € </li></ul><ul><li>(2.2 % cutting down with regard to 2002) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Don’t close down the booths. We must preserve the pluralism of the press!
  13. 13. <ul><li>Closing down of selling places </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Round 32,400 sales spots in France : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some 29,000 bookshops selling newspapers and magazines (Maisons de la presse, Relay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some 2,700 corners in general stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>700 booths or kiosks of which 300 are in Paris </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cumulative Newsprint Circulation in 2003 <ul><li>Total: </li></ul><ul><li>4,667,068,757 copies a year of which daily newspapers represent </li></ul><ul><li>2,350,609,335 copies a year </li></ul><ul><li>(that means a 1.88 % fall with regard to 2002) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Daily Newspapers Companies & employment (down) <ul><li>30,000 workers </li></ul><ul><li>105 companies of more than 20 workers </li></ul><ul><li>among them, 21 companies of more then 500 workers (70% CA = turnover) </li></ul><ul><li>average size = 270 workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ouest-France: 1,900 workers of which 550 journalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sud-Ouest: 1,150 workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Le Monde: 750 workers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Decline due to lower information and editorial quality The decline touches all reference press now
  17. 17. Continued <ul><li>The editorial bid is much critizised. Many people find no interest in reading a daily newspaper and do not trust accuracy of informations or the way they are dealt with </li></ul><ul><li>Informations are generally provided by AFP (the French Press Agency) and too often given without any substantial comments or analysis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Continued <ul><li>Newspapers reflect less and less the variety of opinons which is after all their essential role. Result: lack of concern of the readership </li></ul><ul><li>Rivals: other media (television, news magazines), free newspapers (a real explosion during the last five years), web sites, newspapers on line (internet publishing) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Ageing of the readership : </li></ul><ul><li>the regular readership represents more and more older people. It is a faithful but somehow weak readership. It does not represent the new generations which ought to be the core of the newspaper readership </li></ul>continued
  20. 20. Continued <ul><li>Increase of price level : </li></ul><ul><li>the subscription price and especially the issue price is too high (ex. Libération and Le Monde , 1.20 €, Figaro , 1.00 €). Lower prices may improve sales. Facing the competition of free papers Libération right now is considering to lower its price. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Continued <ul><li>Specific French problems : </li></ul><ul><li>– Subscription </li></ul><ul><li>in general the French readership does not like to subscribe to a newspaper but prefers to buy the paper every day . This fact makes it difficult for a newspaper to get regular readers </li></ul><ul><li>– No newspapers published on Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>except two in Paris: Le Journal de Dimanche and L’Equipe Dimanche belonging to the consumer press, and some local papers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Means and Remedies How to fight against stagnation and take up the challenge
  23. 23. Means <ul><ul><ul><li>Recent financial concentrations: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Serge Dassault and the purchase of Socpresse in 2004 (that means some 70 French national (ex. Le Figaro ) and regional newspapers (ex. Le Progrès de Lyon, Le Bien public … and magazines such as L’Express, L’Expansion, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Continued <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arnaud Lagardère and HFM (Hachette Filipacchi Médias), the most important publisher of magazines (ex. Paris-Match, Elle …) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bernard Arnault (LVMH), François Pinault (PPR) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Continued <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other industrial investors in the Newsprint sector: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edouard de Rothschild (20 million € just injected into Libération ; saving of L’Humanité, both dailies belonging to the leftwing papers !), Martin Bouygues, Bertelsmann… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippe Hersant and France-Antilles (regional and overseas newspapers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Continued <ul><ul><ul><li>Le Monde too has serious economic difficulties and makes a recapitalisation of 50 million €. The economic recovery also involves other points: a new editor, reorganisation, cutting down of the staff, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Remedies <ul><li>Supplements: </li></ul><ul><li>newspaper publishers look especially at the weekly supplements of more specific content (sport, fashion, TV programmes, spare time activities…) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Continued <ul><li>The Tabloid format: </li></ul><ul><li>in France this small format may be adopted in order to be more attractive for the younger readership but most newspapers are still hesitating while Germany and the UK have already made progress. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Continued <ul><li>Journalist Schools in France: </li></ul><ul><li>- modernizing and adopting of new teaching methods, students’ exchanges, </li></ul><ul><li> etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. French newspapers on the web (1) <ul><ul><ul><li>Europresse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> AFP [French news agency] - 9 national newspapers, several regional newspapers and weeklies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and French Canadian newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. French newspapers on the web (2) <ul><li>Portail de la presse </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> 18 national, 59 regional dailies - 240 regional weeklies & round 11,000 French current magazines </li></ul><ul><li>many links towards professional associations & newspaper websites, especially </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 32. Audit & Statistics <ul><li>Statistics are published by </li></ul><ul><li>Direction du développement des médias </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation is audited by </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion contrôle OJD </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>See also </li></ul>
  33. 33. Conclusion <ul><li>Newspaper publishing in France still seems to hesitate how to reverse the present stagnation and yet new approaches are starting off. </li></ul><ul><li>Today France only ranks 31 st worldwide with regard to the number of circulated dailies per 1000 inhabitants. </li></ul>