Business Activity Modeling

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Business Activity Modeling

  1. 1. Business Activity Modeling <ul><li>Nick Lambrou </li></ul><ul><li>University of Westminster </li></ul>
  2. 2. Business Activity Modeling <ul><li>The technique provides a pictorial representation of the business which helps tease out the requirements, focus on the areas of concern, put the system into perspective, inform the clients of what is possible and what is in the realm of ‘science fiction’, while never alienating them in any way. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Business Activity Modeling <ul><li>When used properly, Business Activity Modelling can increase user participation and encourage users to build a sense of ownership for the future system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Business Activity Modeling <ul><li>Business Events </li></ul><ul><li>Business Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks </li></ul>
  5. 5. Business Activity Modeling Business Events <ul><li>Business Events Trigger the Activities of one Business Task </li></ul>Activity A Activity B Activity D Activity C Business task Business event
  6. 6. Business Activity Modeling Activities <ul><li>An Activity is a self contained action that usually is achieved in one sitting </li></ul>
  7. 7. Business Activity Modeling Tasks <ul><li>An Activity can be broken-up into tasks. The tasks involved in completing an activity may vary according to different conditions. When an activity is complicated, we may analyse the activity by breaking it into tasks and then reconstructing these tasks. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Business Activity Modeling Notation <ul><li>A business activity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Business Activity Modeling Notation <ul><li>The phrase describing the activity should contain a verb which shows what happens from the business point of view. Thus ‘Customer Appointment’ won’t do since it is verbless. Similarly, ‘Ask For Appointment’ won’t do either since it depicts the customer’s point of view. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Business Activity Modeling Salon Example
  11. 11. Business Activity Modeling Salon Example <ul><li>In typical pictorial fashion we can display all the business activities on a page large enough. We can then link those activities with arrows indicating associations which show, in some loose form, which activities have to precede which. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Business Activity Modeling Salon Example <ul><li>For example, the following activities regarding a single appointment are evident in our Salon: a receptionist takes the appointment and if the customer is new a customer record is set-up; close to the day of the appointment the receptionist makes sure a stylist is allocated to the appointment; on the day of the appointment a stylist attends to the customer where, as part of the job, alternative treatments may be suggested. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Business Activity Modeling Salon Example Take Customer Appointment Appointment’s Arrange Stylist Attend To Appointment Recommend Alternative Treatments Set Up Customer File
  14. 14. Business Activity Modeling Setting the Boundary inside outside Take Customer Appointment Appointment’s Arrange Stylist Attend To Appointment Recommend Alternative Treatments Set Up Customer File
  15. 17. Work Practice Modeling <ul><li>While the BAM defines the business activities in terms of what, when, how and why, the WPM specifies who will carry out each activity and where </li></ul><ul><li>The products of Work Practice Modelling include the User Catalogue, Task Models, Task Scenarios, and User Roles </li></ul>
  16. 18. Work Practice Modeling D D e e f f i i n n i i t t i i o o n n o o f f R R e e q q u u i i r r e e m m e e n n t t s s I I d d e e n n t t i i f f y y U U s s e e r r R R o o l l e e s s I I d d e e n n t t i i f f y y T T a a s s k k s s D D e e v v e e l l o o p p R R e e q q u u i i r r e e d d T T a a s s k k M M o o d d e e l l s s D D e e v v e e l l o o p p T T a a s s k k S S c c e e n n a a r r i i o o s s I I n n v v e e s s t t i i g g a a t t i i o o n n o o f f C C u u r r r r e e n n t t E E n n v v i i r r o o n n m m e e n n t t D D e e v v e e l l o o p p B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s A A c c t t i i v v i i t t y y M M o o d d e e l l P P e e r r f f o o r r m m I I n n i i t t i i a a l l U U s s e e r r A A n n a a l l y y s s i i s s B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s S S y y s s t t e e m m O O p p t t i i o o n n s s P P r r o o p p o o s s e e A A l l t t e e r r n n a a t t i i v v e e O O u u t t l l i i n n e e W W o o r r k k P P r r a a c c t t i i c c e e M M o o d d e e l l s s A A g g r r e e e e A A u u t t o o m m a a t t i i o o n n B B o o u u n n d d a a r r y y P P r r o o t t o o t t y y p p i i n n g g D D e e v v e e l l o o p p R R e e q q u u i i r r e e d d T T a a s s k k M M o o d d e e l l s s
  17. 19. Work Practice Modeling The receptionist
  18. 20. Work Practice Modeling The stylist
  19. 21. Work Practice Modeling <ul><li>Work Practice Modelling entails the allocation of responsibilities to humans. To do so successfully, experience is needed plus the full backing of the affected organisation. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Hierarchical Task Modeling <ul><li>A task model describes the human activities that take place as a response to a business event. The BAM, which is after all just a network of activities, provides the starting point of activity identification. Each activity may then be broken down into smaller tasks which have to be performed to complete the activity. These tasks can be arranged in a hierarchy using a Hierarchical Task Model (HTM). </li></ul>
  21. 23. Hierarchical Task Modeling plan (10) : 18 or 14,18 Arrange Appointment 10 Set Up Customer Record 14 Take Down Appointment Details 18 plan (18) : 186,189 or 183,186,189 or 183 List Available Slots 183 Record Appointment 186 Inform Stylist 189
  22. 24. Hierarchical Task Modeling Task Scenarios <ul><li>One way of understanding and controlling the tasks involved in the successful completion of an activity is to provide concrete examples of real life situations which describe from beginning to end the actions needed to complete the activity. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Hierarchical Task Modeling Task Scenarios <ul><li>Each business activity is influenced by certain happenings and conditions to which users of the system have to react in order to complete the activity. Each set of such conditions represents a task scenario for the activity. For example, each different plan of the HTM represents a Task Scenario </li></ul>
  24. 26. Hierarchical Task Modeling Task Scenarios <ul><li>Task Scenarios are very helpful in validating Task Models. Usually, the task scenarios precede and drive the creation of the Task Model, but, as with all other diagrammatic tools of system analysis, the tables are soon turned and the Task Model generates ideas for Task Scenarios which can be validated with the users </li></ul>
  25. 27. Hierarchical Task Modeling <ul><li>Hierarchical Task Modelling originated in the 50’s when sociologists were trying to dissect peoples’ jobs in order to analyse them fully. The dissection of jobs into separate tasks led to a better understanding of these jobs and provided, almost as a side-product, tighter job descriptions and clearer training manuals. Their use in a computing environment will hopefully lead to similar benefits. </li></ul>
  26. 28. The System Development Template Decision Structure Policies and Procedures User Organisation Investigation Construction Specification
  27. 29. The System Development Template Decision Structure Policies and Procedures User Organisation Investigation Construction Specification Conceptual Model Internal design External Design
  28. 30. The Place of Business Activity Modeling Decision Structure Policies and Procedures User Organisation Investigation Construction Specification Conceptual Model Internal design External Design BAM RD WPM

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