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Back To The 1950s

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Back To The 1950s

  1. 1. The 1950s A Decade in Retro spect
  2. 2. Statistics <ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World – 2.52 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. – 152 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. National Debt - $257,357,352,351.04  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average U.S. Annual Salary - $2,992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price of a loaf of bread - $0.14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Wage - $1.00 (as of 1955) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male – 65.6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female – 71.1 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorces – 385,144 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Food <ul><li>1950: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jell-O Instant Pudding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dunkin’ Donuts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1952: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar Frosted Flakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KFC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1953: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen T.V. Dinners </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Food, Con’t. <ul><li>1954: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burger King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McDonalds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1957: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet’N Low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1958: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jif Peanut Butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pizza Hut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Party Snack: Chex Mix </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fashion – Male <ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducktail Cut (Duck Butt, D.A.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grease! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crewcut and Flat-Top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hats were Essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business – dark brown, charcoal, or black suits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual – conservative, “preppy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardigan Sweaters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pink Clothing (Fad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowboy Look </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fashion – Female <ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short, Soft, Curly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Curlers, Rollers, Pins, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Blow Dryers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Poodle Cut” was a favorite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dressed “smartly” – well groomed and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tailored looks were prized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeans (then, called “dungarees”) were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only worn in very casual circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailor look was popular in teens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves were part of all proper attire </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fashion – Shoes <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wore saddle and regular dress shoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiletto heels to be fashionable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flats for school and daily wear </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Makeup <ul><li>“ Peaches and cream” complexion </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation applied as liquid or as pressed powder </li></ul><ul><li>Eyebrows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually narrowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal blush and eyeshadow, creating natural look </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic look was OK, especially in evenings </li></ul><ul><li>Lipstick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastels were favored colors, especially in younger women </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Slang <ul><li>“ Cruisin’ for a bruisin’” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Back seat bingo” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Greaser” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jets” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Like, crazy” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Like, wow” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Passion pit” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Razz my berries” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Music <ul><li>Notable artists of the time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elvis Presley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Haley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Shake, Rattle, and Roll” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Rock Around the Clock” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerry Lee Lewis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Great Balls of Fire” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddy Holly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Peggy Sue” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frank Sinatra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Love and Marriage” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“I’ve Got the World On a String” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Rise of Rock and Roll <ul><li>1950 - - 1952 - - 1954 - - 1956 - - 1958 - - 1960 </li></ul>| ________________ 1951: 1 st rock and roll record released – Ike Turner’s Rocket 88 . 1953: Elvis Presley makes first private recordings. ___ 1954: Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock” is first rock song used in movie soundtrack. | _____ ______________ 1956: “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis; Love Me Tender – his 1 st film – is released. | 1959: Market share of Rock and Roll increases to 42.7% - up from 14.7% In 1955.
  12. 12. Elvis Presley <ul><li>Born: January 8, 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Died: August 16, 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Career took of in 1956 with the </li></ul><ul><li>release of “Heartbreak Hotel” </li></ul><ul><li>In the Army from 1958-1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest Hits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Heartbreak Hotel” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Love Me Tender” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Hound Dog” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“All Shook Up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Don’t Be Cruel” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Jailhouse Rock” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. “The Day the Music Died” <ul><li>February 3, 1959 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23 year-old Buddy Holly, 17 year-old Ritchie Valens, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 year-old J.P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson die in plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crash near Fargo, North Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced to in Don McLean’s 1971 song, “American </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pie.” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fads <ul><li>3-D Movies </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed it eliminated bad smells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hula Hoops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Richard Knerr and Arthur “Spud” Melin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>founders of the Wham-O company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold 25 million in less than two months, with 100 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>international orders. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fads, Con’t. <ul><li>Poodles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramic poodles, plastic poodles, colored poodles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wearable poodles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poodle haircut (i.e. Lucille Ball) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone Booth “Cramming” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to fit as many people as possible in a telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>booth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 people is record, set in South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silly Putty </li></ul>
  16. 16. Television <ul><li>8 million sets in households by 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Huge revenues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely due to cigarette advertising and sponsorship </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Shows <ul><li>I Love Lucy (CBS – 1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Lassie (CBS – 1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Mickey Mouse Club (ABC – 1955) </li></ul><ul><li>The Honeymooners (CBS – 1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Leave It to Beaver (CBS – 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>The Twilight Zone (CBS – 1959) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advertisements – Television
  19. 19. Advertisements – Print <ul><li>Saturated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various material goods </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Computer Systems <ul><li>UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) – 1951 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost in almost $1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in government and exclusive commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applications (first was at the GE Appliance Park in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisville, KY) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Computer Systems, Con’t. <ul><li>IBM 701 Computer – 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First commercially available scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioned by government for military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applications in Korean War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microchip (Integrated Circuit) is Developed - 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Noyce (later founder of Intel Corp.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and Jack Kilby </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Satellites <ul><li>Sputnik I– October 4, 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.S.R. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First satellite ever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmanned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed by Sputnik 2 (November 3, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1957) and Sputnik 3 (May 15, 1958) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and later missions in the 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explorer I – 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Technology </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sputnik
  24. 24. Advances in Medicine <ul><li>Polio Vaccine – 1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jonas Salk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA Structure – 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Crick and James Watson </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Inventions <ul><li>Xerox Copy Machine – 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chester Carlton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Videotape – 1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VERA (Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frisbee – 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made successful by Wham-O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pantyhose – 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Barbie Dolls – 1959 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named after Ruth Handler’s daughter, Barbara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by Mattel </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Nuclear Warfare <ul><li>Rosenberg Trial – 1951 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethel and Julius Rosenberg prosecuted for leaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secrets of atomic bomb to Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed on June 19, 1953 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Ballistic Missile is Invented – 1956 </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Hydrogen Bomb <ul><li>Test of First Hydrogen Bomb – 1956 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Edward Teller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mike”; weighed 82 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 800 times the power of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bomb that leveled Hiroshima </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveled the island of Elugelab in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eniwetok Atoll, Pacific Ocean, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blew 80 million tons of radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste into the sky </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Hydrogen Bomb – Video
  29. 29. Politics <ul><li>Presidents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fight against communism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ended Korean War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Politics <ul><li>McCarthyism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senator Joseph McCarthy accused the State Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of having been infiltrated by communists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacklisted celebrities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Welch: “Have you no sense of decency?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died in 1957, age 48 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska and Hawaii become 49 th and 50 th states in 1959 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Korean War - Overview <ul><li>On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded United States occupied South Korea in hopes of thwarting America and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>President Truman sought to give help to South Korea through the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Victory by General Douglas MacArthur when he pushed the North Koreans back across the 38 th parallel (dividing line between countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Ended in 1953 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Korean War - Entry <ul><li>President Truman was under pressure for being too “soft” on Communism </li></ul><ul><li>The Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated to stop spread of communism; if President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Truman didn’t act against the communism in Korea, he </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>would be going back on his word and his beliefs </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Korean War - Reaction <ul><li>Known as “The Forgotten War” or “Unknown War” because it followed WWII and was before the Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Changed America’s view of Third World countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before: Criticized countries trying to help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After: Full support of trying to help those less fortunate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped the civil rights movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time America had fought with an integrated army </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Civil Rights <ul><li>Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes racial and ethnic barriers to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>becoming a U.S. citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 17, 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declares segregation in public schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall, who would later become the first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>black Supreme Court Justice </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Civil Rights, Con’t. <ul><li>August 1955 - 14-year-old Emmett Till is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchi River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two white men are arrested and subsequently acquitted by an all-white jury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks refuses to give up bus seat, spurs bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>1957 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is established by Martin Luther King Jr., Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth </li></ul>
  36. 36. A Tribute to Rosa Parks – 12/01/55
  37. 37. Civil Rights, Con’t. <ul><li>1957 – Nine black students are blocked from entering previously all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas by orders of Governor Orval Faubus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal troops and national guard are sent by Eisenhower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to intervene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group became known as the “Little Rock Nine” </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Cold War <ul><li>Jaunuary 12, 1951 – Federal Civil Defense Administration is established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Soviet’s first atomic explosion and Korean War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At first, only had small budget and limited power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1958, spending was increased, and civil defense was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made a top priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By October 25, 1962, there were over 112,000 fallout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shelters providing possible protection for over 60 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. citizens </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Cold War, Con’t. <ul><li>March 1954 – the KGB is established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original name, CHEKA (Russian acronym meaning “All </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter-Revolution and Sabotage) altered and changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>until it became the komitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Committee of State Security), or the KGB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five main directorates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence in other nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counterintelligence and the secret police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The KGB military corps and the Border Guards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of internal resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic espionage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Literature <ul><li>Focused on topics such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual control over one’s fate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop Fulton J. Sheen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views of American life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinua Achebe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-establishment movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neal Cassady </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Novels <ul><li>The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe – C.S. Lewis (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>I, Robot – Isaac Asimov (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>The Martian Chronicles – Ray Bradbury (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Catcher in the Rye – J.D. Salinger (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Charlotte’s Web – E.B. White (1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Casino Royale – Ian Fleming (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit 451 – Ray Bradbury (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Lord of the Flies – William Golding (1954) </li></ul><ul><li>The Lord of the Rings – J.R.R. Tolkien (1954-1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Atlas Shrugged – Ayn Rand (1957) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Drama <ul><li>A Raisin in the Sun – Lorraine Hansbury (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>The Crucible – Arthur Miller (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Cat on a Hot Tin Roof – Tennessee Williams (Produced, 1955) </li></ul><ul><li>The Diary of Anne Frank - Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Long Day’s Journey Into Night – Eugene O’Neill (1957) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Magazines <ul><li>MAD Magazine (October-November 1952) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Enquirer is Reborn (1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Playboy Magazine (1953) </li></ul><ul><li>TV Guide (April 3, 1953) </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Illustrated (August 16, 1954) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Comics <ul><li>DC Comics revives superheroes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Silver Age of Comic Books” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Flash – 1956 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peanuts – Charles Schulz (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis the Menace – Hank Ketcham (1951) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Philosophical Movements <ul><ul><li>Draws on a number of approaches to criticize western </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thought, including historicism and psychoanalytic theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous postmodernist is Richard Rorty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postmodern Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Started” in the 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rejection of doctrines such as positivism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwinism, materialism, and objective idealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes importance of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationships, personalization, and discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the “construction” of truth and worldviews </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The Beat Generation <ul><li>Relatively small group of struggling writers, students, hustlers, and drug addicts </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated nonconformity </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually gave way to the “hippie” generation in the 60s </li></ul>
  47. 47. The End

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