King1 Ppt Ch09


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  • King1 Ppt Ch09

    1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence </li></ul>
    2. 2. Steps in Problem Solving <ul><li>Find and frame problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop good problem-solving strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time </li></ul>
    3. 3. Problem-Solving Strategies <ul><li>Subgoaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set intermediate goals to help you reach the final solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies that guarantee a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortcut strategy that suggests, but does not guarantee, a solution </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Problem-Solving Obstacles <ul><li>Optimal problem solving might require humility – methods are open to revision </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a prior strategy without looking for a new perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail to solve a problem because of a fixation with the usual functions. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Reasoning and Decision Making <ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by data; bottom-up; general  specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by logic; top-down; specific  general </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Reasoning and Decision Making <ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasoning and decision making can occur without conscious awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Complex decision making may benefit from a lack of conscious thought </li></ul>
    7. 7. Decision-Making Obstacles <ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to search only for information that supports our ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to falsely report after the fact that we predicted an outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the probability of an event based on how easily similar events are recalled </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Critical Thinking <ul><li>Thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness – Alert and mentally present </li></ul><ul><li>Open-Mindedness – Receptive to new ways of looking at things </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent versus Convergent Thinking </li></ul>
    9. 9. Creative Thinking <ul><li>Creative people are divergent thinkers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergent vs. divergent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of creative thinkers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility and playful thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to face risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective evaluation of work </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Creative Problem Solving <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul>
    11. 11. Intelligence <ul><li>What is intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of intelligence reflect culture </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Binet – Mental Age (MA) </li></ul><ul><li>Stern – Intelligence Quotient (IQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ = (MA/CA) * 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stanford-Binet Test </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Scales </li></ul>
    13. 13. Intelligence: Normal Distribution
    14. 14. Influences on Testing <ul><li>Cultural Bias in Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Influences on Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Influences on Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flynn effect </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Flynn Effect
    16. 16. Variations in Intelligence <ul><li>Giftedness: IQ ≥ 130 </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Retardation: IQ < 70 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifications of mental retardation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, moderate, severe, profound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories of support: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent, limited, extensive, pervasive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic versus Cultural-Familial Retardation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Theories of Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Theories of Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Language <ul><li>Language - A form of spoken, written, or signed communication based on symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and Nonverbal Communication </li></ul>
    20. 20. Influences on Language <ul><li>Biological Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language universals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemispheric specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal speech </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Development of Language
    22. 22. Language and Education <ul><li>Whole-Language Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that reading instruction should parallel natural language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading should be integrated with other subjects and focus on real world material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonics Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading instructions should teach basic rules for translating symbols into sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex reading materials after basic mastery </li></ul></ul>