Drugs & crime

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Drugs & crime

  1. 1. Resources <ul><li>Office of National Drug Control Policy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Justice Programs </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ojp.gov </li></ul><ul><li>U. S. Department of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>http://searchjustice.usdoj.gov </li></ul><ul><li>U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.justice.gov/dea </li></ul>
  2. 2. Follow up from DV <ul><li>Survey of data taken from the National Census of Domestic Violence Services by Radha Iyengar & Lindsay Sabick, 2009. Surveyed all calls for domestic violence within a 24 hour period. </li></ul><ul><li>Snapshot of services requested during this 24 hour period: </li></ul><ul><li>* There were 48,350 calls for help during this period. </li></ul><ul><li>* Of these, some 14,518 calls for emergency housing. </li></ul><ul><li>* Approximately 5,000 calls went ‘unmet’ during this time for lack of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>* 38% of all victims of DV become homeless at some point. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Substance Abuse, Alcohol and Crime <ul><li>The War on Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1999-Cost $17.1 billion dollars in Law Enforcement efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you don’t hear: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Asset Forfeitures, the DEA seized $522 million in cash between August, 2007 and November, 2008 (DOJ, 9-09). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2009-$14 billion for treatment and prevention. US DOJ, 2009) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Substance Abuse, Alcohol and Crime <ul><li>The War on Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cash figure does not include the value of bank accounts, vehicles, guns, jewelry or homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The asset forfeiture program is designed to prevent criminals from benefitting financially from their illegal activities (US DOJ). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Substance Abuse, Alcohol and Crime <ul><li>The War on Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vietnam War officially began 1959 and ended in 1975. Just over 58,000 soldiers lost their lives during this 16 year period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,000 Americans die each year due directly to illegal drugs (excluding alcohol related deaths). In comparison, over a 16 year period, that equates to 256,000 deaths. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Juvenile Drug Use <ul><li>Arrest rates for juvenile drug violations have increased 23% from 1994 to 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>While the actual number of arrests has risen, the percentage of drug arrests compared to the total number of arrests has remained constant. For example 11.8% of juveniles were arrested for drug offenses in 1994 compared to 11.6% in 2003. However, the drug of choice has changed over time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Juvenile Drug Use <ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>For juveniles under age 10: </li></ul><ul><li>79% of juveniles arrested were male </li></ul><ul><li>21% of juveniles arrested were female </li></ul><ul><li>75% of these offenders were white (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Who is selling? </li></ul><ul><li>10% of juveniles admit to buying drugs in school. ? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drugs & Criminal Activity <ul><li>Six consistent findings associated with drug use: </li></ul><ul><li>More people incarcerated for drug offenses than any other offense. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrestees usually test positive for drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrestees are usually under the influence of drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Some property crimes supports the addiction of the offender. </li></ul><ul><li>Some drug trafficking creates violent crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug-crime affect is difficult to identify and measure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Drugs & Criminal Activity <ul><li>The Tripartite Conceptual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Goldstein </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopharmacologically driven crime-When a drug causes someone to become violent and engage in crime. Belief that this is rare, usually attributed to alcohol (PCP). </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic crime model-Drug trafficking is violent. The system it creates. </li></ul><ul><li>Economically compulsive-Criminal behavior that supports drug addiction. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major Categories of Drugs <ul><li>Psychoactive Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens-Marijuana, LSD, Psilocybin. Create changes in one’s reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants-Cocaine, Amphetamines, Nicotine. Stimulate the Central Nervous System. </li></ul><ul><li>Opiates-Opium & its derivatives-Heroin & Morphine. Used as a sedative & for pain relief. </li></ul><ul><li>Depressants-Alcohol, Ecstasy, Meth. Depress the Central Nervous System </li></ul>
  11. 11. Schedules of Drugs <ul><li>54.1~3453 </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule I – Has high potential for abuse and no medical purpose. Possession of is a Class 5 Felony. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule II – High potential for abuse, though some medical purpose. Abuse may lead to severe psychic or physical dependence. Possession of is a Class 5 Felony. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule III – High potential for abuse, though widely accepted medical use. May lead to moderate psychic or physical dependence. Possession of is a Class 1 Misdemeanor. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Schedules of Drugs <ul><li>Schedule IV – Low potential for abuse, though widely accepted medical use. May lead to limited psychic or physical dependence. Possession of is a Class 2 Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule V – Low potential for abuse, though widely accepted medical use. May lead to limited psychic or physical dependence. Possession of is a Class 3 Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule VI – Any prescription drug, not covered by above schedule, which is required to carry the federal warning that it is a prescribed drug. Possession is Class 4 Misdemeanor. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Crime <ul><li>The influence of Alcohol on Crime </li></ul><ul><li>86% of Homicide offenders were drinking at time of offense. </li></ul><ul><li>60% of Sexual offenders were drinking at the time of offense. </li></ul><ul><li>57% of Domestic Violence offenders (Men) had been drinking at the time of the offense. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Victimless Crime? <ul><li>Drugs-the “victimless crime” and defending legalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana for medical purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Sorry, but there is a solution for medical marijuana that does not require smoking weed. It is called Marinol , a synthetic form of THC that is FDA approved. It provides the same relief for nausea, vomiting and appetite loss to cancer and AIDS patients as inhaling Marijuana (US DEA, 2009). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Victimless Crime? <ul><li>Drugs-the “victimless crime” and defending legalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Victimless: </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of income due to job attainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of income due to performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Affect on families and society due to arrests. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence associated with the distribution of the drug. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Drug Interdiction <ul><li>Vehicle Interdiction </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>What can the police do? </li></ul><ul><li>Where or how does it start? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable, articulate suspicion! </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to brief detention. </li></ul><ul><li>Which leads to Probable Cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Which leads to search and arrest. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Drug Interdiction <ul><li>Vehicle Interdiction </li></ul><ul><li>II </li></ul><ul><li>What the police can do? </li></ul><ul><li>In consensual encounters: </li></ul><ul><li>No reason is needed. Anyone, at any time, is free to talk to anyone else. As long as a reasonable person feels free to leave the conversation, the “stop” no 4 th amendment issue is violated. </li></ul>

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