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  1. 1. Major Categories of Drugs <ul><li>Tolerance : is indicated by a state of progressively decreased responsiveness to a drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence : the physiological distress and physical pain a person suffers if he or she goes without the drug for any length of time. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>The relationship between drugs and crime are commonly associated with criminal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four major drug categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Hallucinogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Stimulants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3)Opiate Narcotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Sedative-Hypnotics </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Major Categories of Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens or Psychedelics : chemical that lead to the a change in consciousness involving an alteration of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants: chemicals that are used to stimulate central nervous system functions. Ex. Caffeine, MDMA, ect. </li></ul><ul><li>Opiate Narcotics: chemicals that have both sedative and analgesic properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedative-Hypnotic: chemicals that depress the central nervous system functions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Marijuana is the most commonly used hallucinogen and is assumed to be linked to crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana does not seemed to be linked to violent crime, however, sale and distribution is an issue. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stimulants <ul><li>Heavy users of amphetamines typically prefer to inject methhamphetamine directly into their bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>During the “speed runs” they usually take part in aggressive or violent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines do not cause people to become violent but they do increase the likelihood that an already violently prone to become violent. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stimulant <ul><li>MDMA: (Ecstasy) is a synthetic drug that is considered a stimulant but with some strong psychedelic effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “club drug” </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the illegal trafficking of the drug, no direct connections have been made between MDMA ingestion and crime. </li></ul><ul><li>MDMA becomes lethal when it is not made under ideal and precise conditions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Depressants <ul><li>Club Drugs: GHB and Rohypnol are both central nervous system depressants. </li></ul><ul><li>Rohypnol is most often associated with the Date Rape because of its use in the club scene. </li></ul><ul><li>The Drug Induced Rape Prevention Act of 1996 was a result the increase in use of Rohypnol and date rape cases. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Depressant <ul><li>Alcohol : The number one drug of abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is responsible for more deaths and violence than all other drugs combined. </li></ul><ul><li>Some research calls alcohol the catalyst for crime. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>The relationship between drugs and crime may be viewed from two perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) the use, sale, manufacture, distribution and possession of an illegal drug. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) the pharmacological effects of certain drugs have on a user’s behavior promoting criminal actions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Research Findings </li></ul><ul><li>1) More individuals are incarcerated or held in jails and prisons for drug offenses than for any other offense; </li></ul><ul><li>2) Arrestees frequently test positive illicit drug use; </li></ul><ul><li>3) Arrestees and incarcerated offenders were often under the influence of illicit drugs when committing their offenses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Research Findings </li></ul><ul><li>4) Some offenders commit property crime to support their drug habit </li></ul><ul><li>5)Drug trafficking often engenders violent crime </li></ul><ul><li>6) The drug-crime relationship is difficult to identify measure </li></ul>
  12. 12. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Tripartite Conceptual Model </li></ul><ul><li>Goldstein identifies three principle types of drug related crime: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) psychopharmacologically driven crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) systemic crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3)economically compulsive crime. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Pscyhopharmacological : as a result of short-term or long-term ingestion of specific drugs or chemical substances become excitable or irrational and demonstrate violent behavior. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Systemic : component of the model hypothesizes that crime arises out of the system of drug trafficking and distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: The production, distribution, and selling of powder and crack cocaine have been associated with violence although the amount of violence fluctuates with the illicit market economy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Economically Compulsive: crime refers to criminal behavior that supports an expensive drug addiction. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>77 million of Americans 12 years and older reported some use of an illicit drug at least once during their lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>(National Household Survey on Drug Use). </li></ul><ul><li>70% of all inmates have committed some type of drug offense. </li></ul><ul><li>85% of federal inmates are incarcerated for a drug offense (a majority were involved in trafficking). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>The most common drug is Marijuana followed by Cocaine. </li></ul><ul><li>27% of the population are also multiple drug users. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Drugs and Crime <ul><li>Crack: The most common method of cocaine smoking in the US is freebasing. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between crack and crime remains obscure. </li></ul>