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Review Of Electric Vehicles

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Review Of Electric Vehicles

  1. 1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
  2. 2. The Need for Alternative Fuel Vehicles
  3. 3. Distribution of Oil Use Transportation 65% Electrical Generation 4% Buildings 7% Industry 24%
  4. 4. Oil Use by Transportation and Oil Production Oil (millions of barrels / day)‏ Oil Use Oil Production Petroleum Gap
  5. 5. World Oil Production Forecast Annual World Oil Production (Billions of Barrels)‏
  6. 6. Percent of Total Pollution Caused by Transportation CO = carbon monoxide NOx = oxides of nitrogen VOCs = volatile organic compounds CO 2 = carbon dioxide 2 CO Particulates VOCs x NO CO Source: EPA, 1997 77% 49% 40% 24% 31%
  7. 7. Number of People in Counties with Unacceptable Air Quality in 1997
  8. 8. CO Emissions by Source in 1997 On-Road Vehicles Metal Processing Fuel Combustion - Other All Other Miscellaneous Non-Road Engines and Vehicles
  9. 9. Nitrogen Oxide (No x ) Emissions by Source in 1997 On-Road Vehicles Fuel Combustion: Other All Other Non-Road Engines and Vehicles Fuel Combustion: Industrial Fuel Combustion : Utility
  10. 10. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Source in 1997 On-Road Vehicles Storage and Transport All Other Non-Road Engines and Vehicles Solvent Utilization
  11. 11. Particulate Matter Emissions by Source in 1997 On-Road and Non-Road Engines and Vehicles Other Industrial Processes Fuel Combustion: Other All Other Fuel Combustion: Industrial Fuel Combustion : Utility
  12. 12. Ozone Non-Attainment Areas
  13. 13. Benefits of Electric Vehicles
  14. 14. Energy Sources for Generation of Electricity Coal 56% Petroleum 2% Natural Gas 9% Hydroelectric 11% Nuclear 22%
  15. 15. Comparison of Emissions Alternative Fuel Emission Comparison a Grams/mile Vehicle Volatile Organic Gases CO No x Exhaust Evaporative Total Gas 0.35 0.04 0.39 1.40 0.66 Methanol 0.25 0.09 0.34 1.00 0.45 LPG 0.20 0 0.20 1.40 0.27 CNG 0.19 0 0.19 0.10 0.44 Electricity* 0.006 0 0.006 0.008 0.07 a Source--CARB Report, May 1989 *Estimate of power plant emissions from Los Angeles Basin electricity generation
  16. 16. Operating Costs
  17. 17. Benefits of Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Fuel costs up to 50% lower </li></ul><ul><li>Lower maintenance costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased rider comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Higher initial torque provides acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>Exemption from emission inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience of home refueling </li></ul><ul><li>Evs are “green” vehicles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Electric Vehicle Technology
  19. 19. Diagram of a Gasoline Car Starter Gas Tank Water Pump Exhaust System Engine Smog Controls Gas Pump Oil Pump Generator Carburetor
  20. 20. Diagram of an Electric Vehicle Controller Motor Battery Battery Management System Charger
  21. 21. Electric Vehicle Battery Pack
  22. 22. Characteristics of an Electric Vehicle Battery Battery Performance Characteristic Energy density Power density Life of the battery Battery cost How Measured Whrs/Kg W/Kg Cycles Years $/KWhr What Is Affected Driving range Acceleration and hill climbing Battery replacement period and life cycle cost Vehicle purchase price Battery replacement cost
  23. 23. Comparison of Electric Motors AC Motor Single speed transmission Light weight Less expensive 95% efficiency at full load More expensive controller Motor/controller/inverter is more expensive DC Motor Multi-speed transmission Heavier for same power Higher cost 85-89% efficiency at full load Simple controller Motor/controller - lower cost
  24. 24. Diagram of Home Refueling Vehicle EV Supply Equipment Wiring in garage or carport Electrical service
  25. 25. A Conductive Refueling Connector
  26. 26. An Inductive Refueling Connector
  27. 27. Level 1 Inductive and Conductive Charging Conductive Charger Inductive Charger
  28. 28. Level 2 Charging
  29. 29. Level 3 Charger
  30. 30. Comparison of Charging Times at the 3 Levels
  31. 31. Fuel Costs
  32. 32. Switch Mode Charger
  33. 33. Inductive Charger
  34. 34. Conductive Charger
  35. 35. Fundamentals of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  36. 36. An Electric Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller)‏ Fuel (batteries)‏ Regenerative Brakes (energy returns to batteries)‏
  37. 37. A Gasoline Car Transmission Power Unit (internal combustion engine)‏ Fuel (gasoline)‏
  38. 38. Series Hybrid Electric Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller)‏ Fuel (batteries)‏ Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes Generator
  39. 39. Parallel Hybrid Electric Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller)‏ Fuel (batteries)‏ Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes
  40. 40. Combination Hybrid Car Transmission Power Unit (motor/controller/generator)‏ Fuel (batteries)‏ Auxiliary Unit Fuel Auxiliary Power Unit Regenerative Brakes Generator
  41. 41. Characteristics of HEVs <ul><li>Series HEV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric motor powers the vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine runs at constant speed and charges the battery pack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the APU motor/generator is flexible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel HEV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APU engine and electric motor are connected to the drive system--improves efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater power is available using the APU engine and electric motor simultaneously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No generator is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination HEV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of both series and hybrid HEVs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More components and a more complex control system is needed. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Advantages of Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Range is greater than an EV. </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions are reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas mileage is improved. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a potential for zero harmful emissions. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Energy Losses of ICE Vehicle
  44. 44. Energy Losses of an HEV
  45. 45. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  46. 46. Availability of Electric Vehicles
  47. 47. General Motors EV1 <ul><li>Standard Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-locking braking system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low rolling resistance tires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM-FM/cassette/CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electriclear windshield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual power outside mirrors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruise control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power door locks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat pump A/C </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. General Motors EV1 <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 65-95 miles (Lead acid); 75-140 miles (NiMH)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top speed 80 mph (governed)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor 137 Hp AC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery type Lead acid, NiMH (optional)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration 0-60 mph in 8.5 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal system voltage 312 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charger 6.6 kw inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charging time 2-3 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price Lease only for $399 to $574 </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Chevrolet S-10 <ul><li>Standard Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>battery thermal management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>power steering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regenerative braking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>driver’s side air bag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>daytime running lamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fuel fired cabin heater--assists cabin heat pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cruise control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>four wheel, anti-lock brakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM/FM radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tilt steering wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intermittent windshield wipers </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Ford Ranger <ul><li>Standard Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 wheel ABS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power steering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric resistance heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low rolling resistance tires </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Honda EV Plus <ul><li>Standard Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power brakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-locking braking system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat pump climate control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM-FM radio / CD </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Honda EV Plus <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 125 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor 66 Hp DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery type Sealed NiMH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration 0-60 mph in 17.7 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal system voltage 288volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payload 700 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charger 4.2 kw inductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charging time 8 hours </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Toyota RAV4-EV <ul><li>Standard Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat pump A/C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power windows and door locks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM-FM/cassette </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated windshield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rear window defogger and wiper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low rolling resistance tires </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Bombadier Neighborhood Vehicle <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum Speed 25 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 30 miles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration 0-20 in 6 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries Six 12 volt, sealed lead acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge Time 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Starting at $6199 </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Electric Bicycles <ul><li>Zap Electricruizer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price $699-$824 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zap PowerBike with 18 speed index shifting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price $899 </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Electric Bicycles <ul><li>Zap Patrol Bike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price $1250-$2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smith-Wesson Bike </li></ul>
  57. 57. Electric Cycles <ul><li>Electricycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed 25 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 20 miles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration 0-18 in 6 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor 24 volt DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries Two 12 volt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight 176 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electric Scooter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed 13 mph/level ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 8 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight 37 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $650 </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Electric Buses <ul><li>Electric Vehicle International Electric Transit Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 40-60 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blue Bird Electric Transit Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 80 miles </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Electric Buses <ul><li>Thomas Built Electric Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 70-75 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating capacity 63 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electric Powered Trolley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 40-70 miles </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Electric Fork Lift Trucks <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard three wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000-3000 lb. capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.6-6.7 mph max. speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit down four wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7000-12,000 lb. capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36-48 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-8.9 mph max. speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit down three wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000-4000 lb. capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36-48 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.5-10 mph max. speed </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Solectria Citivan <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed 45 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 40 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payload 3500 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor 70 KW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System voltage 312 volts </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Tram and Utility Vehicles <ul><li>Cushman Utility Vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed 20 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity 1200 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery 48 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electric Vehicles International Tram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating 78 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range 40-70 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cushman Utility Vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed 12 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity 1400 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery 36 volts </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  64. 64. Honda Insight Hybrid Electric Car

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