International Legal Research

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International Legal Research

  1. 1. International Legal Research<br />Margaret Clark<br />FSU College of Law Research Center<br />March 2010<br />
  2. 2. What we will cover<br />Public International Law<br />Sources of International Law<br />Secondary Sources<br />
  3. 3. Public International Law<br />Public International Law<br /> Laws governing relations between nations and relations among international organizations, nations, and individuals. <br />Private International Law<br /> Refers to law that governs interactions between citizens or private entities (such as companies)<br />
  4. 4. Sources of Law<br />Adapted from Marci Hoffman’s International & Foreign Legal Research.<br />
  5. 5. Sources of Law<br />Adapted from Marci Hoffman’s International & Foreign Legal Research.<br />
  6. 6. Sources of International Law<br />
  7. 7. Sources of International Law<br />… international conventions …<br />Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oct. 24, 1945, art. 38, 59 Stat. 1031<br />
  8. 8. Sources of Law - Treaties<br />Definition<br />… international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation; Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969<br />Types of Treaties<br />Bilateral<br />Multilateral<br />
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  10. 10. Source of Law - Treaties<br />Two elements to treaty research<br />Finding text<br />Authoritative?<br />Most recent?<br />2. Determining Status <br />Entered into force?<br />Changed by subsequent protocols or amendments?<br />Who are the current signatories?<br />Does country in focus have any reservations?<br />
  11. 11. Sources of Law - Treaties<br />1. Finding Treaty Text<br /><ul><li>General or Specific Collections
  12. 12. UN Treaty Collection, EISIL
  13. 13. U.S. Income Tax Treaties
  14. 14. Government Collections
  15. 15. U.S. Treaty Series, U.S. Statutes-At-Large
  16. 16. Canada Treaty Information
  17. 17. Intergovernmental Organizations
  18. 18. Council of Europe
  19. 19. U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights
  20. 20. Non-governmental Organizations
  21. 21. International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC</li></li></ul><li>General Collection<br />
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  25. 25. Sources of Law - Treaties<br />2. Determining Status<br />UN Treaty Collection: Status of Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General<br />U.S. Treaties in Force<br />
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  28. 28. Treaties – Researching2. Determining Status <br />
  29. 29. …international custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law;<br />Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oct. 24, 1945, art. 38, 59 Stat.1031<br />
  30. 30. International custom:Definition<br />Under ICJ Statute Article 38(1)(b), <br /> “a general practice accepted as law”<br />Restatement of the Law, Foreign Relations Law of the United States sec. 102(2) reads “Customary international law results from a general and consistent practice of states followed by them from a sense of legal obligation.”<br />“…consists of rules of law derived from the consistent conduct of States acting out of the belief that the law required them to act that way." (Rosenne, Practice and Methods of International Law, p. 55) <br />
  31. 31. Customary International Law: Basic elements <br />“General Practice Accepted as Law”<br />General and consistent state practice <br />Practice occurs out of a sense of legal obligation <br />Acts taken by a significant number of states<br />
  32. 32. Customary International Law: Examples<br />“non-refoulement”: norm that forbids the expulsion of a refugee into an area where s/he might be again subjected to persecution. <br />Prohibition against torture<br />Prohibition against genocide<br />
  33. 33. Customary International Law<br />Evidence of State Practice<br />Records of diplomatic practice<br />Domestic legislation<br />Practice of IGOs<br />Decisions of national and international courts<br />Opinions of legal advisors<br />Official military manuals<br />Policy statements<br />Comments by governments on ILC drafts<br />
  34. 34. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #1<br />Writings of scholars<br />Treatises<br />
  35. 35. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #1<br />Writings of scholars<br />Treatises<br />Articles<br />
  36. 36. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #2<br />Primary sources of state practice are cited in uniquebackground sources of international law<br />Digests<br />
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  38. 38. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #2<br />Primary sources of state practice are cited in uniquebackground sources of international law<br />Digests<br />Yearbooks<br />
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  40. 40. The Australian Year Book<br />of International Law<br />Volume 24<br />Research Strategy #2 <br />BACKGROUND SOURCES - Yearbooks<br />
  41. 41. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #2<br />Primary sources of state practice are cited in uniquebackground sources of international law<br />Digests<br />Yearbooks<br />Restatements<br />
  42. 42. Customary International Law<br />Research Strategy #1<br /><ul><li>Writings of scholars
  43. 43. Treatises
  44. 44. Articles</li></ul>Research Strategy #2<br />Primary sources of state practice are cited in uniquebackground sources of international law<br />Digests<br />Yearbooks<br />Restatements<br />
  45. 45. … the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations.<br />Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oct. 24, 1945, art. 38, 59 Stat.1031<br />
  46. 46. General Principles of Law<br />Fundamental concepts found in all major legal systems of the world <br />once a matter has been decided in court, it can’t be decided again (res judicata )<br />can’t be judge in your case<br />Agreements among nations should be kept (pactasuntservanta)<br />Principles emerging out of international relations<br />sovereign equality of states<br />non-intervention<br />
  47. 47. General Principles of Law<br />Background sources<br />Journal articles<br />Bassioiuni’sFunctional Approach to General Principles of International Law 11 Mich J Int’l L. 786<br />Treatises<br />Cheng’s General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals.<br />International and domestic decisions<br />Domestic legislation<br />
  48. 48. … judicial decisions …<br />Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oct. 24, 1945, art. 38, 59 Stat.1031<br />
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  50. 50. Tools for finding cases<br />Secondary Sources<br />Reporters or Internet court sites<br />Subject Specific Collections<br />Case Digests<br />
  51. 51. Offers practical information for judges and lawyers in international community<br />Each issues features significant judicial developments<br />Case commentary<br /><ul><li> procedural issues
  52. 52. legal elements
  53. 53. case’s significance</li></li></ul><li>Secondary Sources:International Legal Materials (ILM)<br />In print / Westlaw / Lexis / HeinOnline<br />
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  56. 56. Tools for finding cases<br />Secondary Sources<br />Reporters or Internet court sites<br />Subject Specific Collections<br />Case Digests<br />
  57. 57. ReportersIndividual Courts<br />International courts and tribunals<br />International criminal courts<br />Regional courts<br />Dispute settlement bodies<br />
  58. 58. ReportersInternet Sites<br />International Court of Justice<br />Principal organ of the U.N.<br />Jurisdiction: settle disputes among states and give advisory opinions (Art. 36 & 37)<br />Decisions / Opinions of the ICJ<br />Print - “Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions, Orders”<br />Internet – ICJ web site<br />
  59. 59. Tools for finding cases<br />Secondary Sources<br />Reporters or Internet court sites<br />Subject Specific Collections<br />Case Digests<br />
  60. 60. ReportersSubject Specific Collections<br />Human Rights Cases (Westlaw, Lexis)<br />International Trade Law Reports<br />International Environmental Law Reports<br />Global War Crimes Tribunal Collection<br />
  61. 61. Tools for finding cases<br />Secondary Sources<br />Reporters or Internet court sites<br />Subject Specific Collections<br />Case Digests<br />
  62. 62. Search<br />Browse<br />
  63. 63. Headnotes and Analysis<br />
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  66. 66. Tools for finding cases<br />International Law Reports (ILR)<br />In print only !! <br />full text opinions in English<br />Best source for finding recent decisions<br />Best source for older decisions (1919 to present)<br />KZ 199.I58 (1st floor of Library)<br />
  67. 67. Tools for finding cases<br />ILR– Index Volumes<br />Treaty Index (treaties referred to in decisions reported in ILR)<br />By date<br />By subject<br />By title<br />Case Index (includes decisions of national court decisions and international tribunals)<br />Alphabetically<br />Jurisdiction <br />
  68. 68. International Law Reports<br />Treaty Index<br />
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  71. 71. … teachings of the most highly qualified publicists … as subsidiary means for determnination of rules of law.<br />Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oct. 24, 1945, art. 38, 59 Stat.1031<br />
  72. 72. Teachings of Publicists<br />Most influential secondary sources include:<br />Reports from UN International Law Commission<br />International Law Association publications<br />Restatement (3rd) of Foreign Relations<br />
  73. 73. Secondary Sources<br />
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  75. 75. Secondary Sources<br />Begin with Research Guides!<br />.org<br />.edu<br />.gov<br />
  76. 76. Find articles alphabetically<br />Find articles by subject<br />Find articles by author<br />Quick and Advanced Search<br />
  77. 77. Secondary Sources – Treatises <br />Finding tools for treatises<br />Online Catalog<br />WorldCat<br />IndexMaster<br />www.law.fsu.edu/library<br />
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  79. 79. Secondary Sources – Treatises <br />Examples of Treatises<br />Human Rights: International Protection, Monitoring, Enforcement<br />Oppenheim’s International Law<br />Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law<br />
  80. 80. Secondary Sources – Journal Articles<br />Legal Trac<br />Index to Legal Periodicals<br />Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals<br />PAIS International <br />Columbia International Affairs Online<br />www.law.fsu.edu/library<br />
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  83. 83. Questions?<br />

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